Multiple choice question for engineering
1. According to USDA’s economic research service, total per capita of all fluid products was approximately _________ pounds.
Answer: d [Reason:] USDA is responsible for accounting the total production of fluid products. According to its report the total per capita of all fluid products summed up to be a total of 177 pounds.
2. Approximately ______% of the frozen dessert market was ice cream (Hard and soft and low-fat/non-fat).
Answer: d [Reason:] Frozen dessert market has variety of products from frozen dessert to ice cream. Ice cream accounts for approximately 86.7% of frozen dessert market.
3. More than _____ % of American household purchase cheese; including cream cheese.
Answer: d [Reason:] Cheese is a very popular dairy commodity. It is purchased by approximately 96% American households.
4. Cheese consumption in the U.S. was approximately ______pounds per capita.
Answer: a [Reason:] Cheese consumption is one of the highest among all dairy products. It accounts for approximately 32 pounds per capita.
5. The two most popular cheese varieties in the U.S. are?
a) Cheddar and Monterey Jack
b) Cheddar and Colby
c) Cheddar and Mozzarella
d) Cheddar and Swiss
Answer: c [Reason:] Cheese has several varieties. Cheddar and Mozzarella are the two most famous varieties among all.
6. The Italian cheese with the second largest per capita consumption was?
Answer: b [Reason:] Provolone is an Italian cheese. It has the second largest per capita consumption.
7. The largest supermarket sales of cheese by type was?
c) Processed American
d) Colby Jack
Answer: a [Reason:] Among the several varieties of the cheeses sold in the supermarket, Cheddar has the largest supermarket sales.
8. In 2009, the annual farm milk price was about $_________ per hundredweight, down $5.60 per hundredweight from 2008.
Answer: b [Reason:] Annual farm milk price keeps fluctuating each year. In 2009 it was about $ 12.80 per hundred weights which was down $5.60 per hundredweight from 2008.
9. The milk-feed price ration (which relates the value of milk to the cost of feed) averaged _______in 2009 far below the 1999-2008 values.
Answer: a [Reason:] The milk-feed price ratio is a measure of the value of 16% protein ration (feed) to one pound of whole milk. As with the hog/corn ratio, this relationship is an indicator of the profitability of milk production. It was 1.78 in 2009 far below the 1999-2008 values.
10. The minimum price for all four classes of milk from the farm in 2009 compared to 2008:
a) Increases slightly
b) Increased a large amount
c) Remained the same
Answer: d [Reason:] Price of milk keeps fluctuating each year. The minimum price for the milk in 2009 has decreased compared to the prices in 2008.
11. The average Federal order price per hundredweight in 2009 for class 1 milk was _______dollars per hundredweight.
Answer: d [Reason:] Federal order price is reported per hundred weight. In 2009 for the class 1 milk this price was 14.4 dollar per hundred weights.
12. The 2009 dairy export value was over 2 billion dollars down approximately ________% over 2008.
Answer: c [Reason:] In 2008 the dairy export value was very high. This saw tremendous decrease by 40% in 2009.
13. The largest total exported dairy product by volume in 2009 was?
a) Cheese and curd
b) Dry whey
c) Non-fat dry milk
Answer: b [Reason:] As opposed to belief that cheese has the maximum export. It has been noted that the maximum export of the dairy product was reported to be that of lactose.
14. The country that was the largest purchaser of U.S. dairy products in 2009 was?
Answer: c [Reason:] US dairy products are exported all over the world. In 2009 Mexico was the largest purchaser of the US dairy products.
15. Five countries accounted for approximately _______% of the total U.S. dairy exports.
Answer: b [Reason:] Dairy products from USA are exported all over the world. Five countries accounted for almost 59% of total US dairy exports.
1. The largest U.S. exports of a dairy product by dollars were?
a) Non-fat dry milk
b) Cheese and curd
c) Whey and whey products
Answer: a [Reason:] USA has a huge market for dairy products export. In 2009 the market was highest for Non fat dry milk.
2. The U.S. also imports certain dairy products. The dairy products imported which accounted for the largest dollar value was?
a) Dry whey
b) Milk protein concentrates
c) Casein and casein products
d) Cheese and curd
Answer: d [Reason:] USA also imports a lot of dairy products in order to meet the demand. Cheese and curd are two dairy products which accounted for the largest dollar value in the imported products.
3. Behind the U.S., the country, which averages the largest production per cow, is _____
Answer: a [Reason:] It has been noted the US has the largest production per cow. Following USA is the country named Japan.
4. The country which imported the largest amount of U.S. ice cream and related products was?
Answer: d [Reason:] USA exports a lot of ice cream in order to meet its market demand. The count which imports most of this USA ice cream is Mexico.
5. The minimum fat content of cheddar cheese is?
Answer: d [Reason:] Cheddar cheese is a relatively hard, off-white, sometimes sharp-tasting, natural cheese. It has approximately 50% fat in it.
6. The cheese that has maximum moisture of 45% and a minimum of 45% fat and is a pasta filata cheese is?
Answer: c [Reason:] Provolone is an Italian cheese. It is an aged pasta filata cheese originating in Casilli near Vesuvius, where it is still produced in pear, sausage, or cone shapes varying from 10 to 15 centimeters long. It has about 45% moisture and minimum of 45% fat.
7. Low sodium cheddar cheese contains no more than ________milligrams of sodium per pound of finished food.
Answer: c [Reason:] As opposed to processed cheddar, low sodium cheddar has relatively less amount of sodium in it. It shouldn’t contain no more than 96 milligrams of sodium per pound.
8. Which of the following cheeses did NOT originate in Italy?
Answer: a [Reason:] Italy is the home place to several cheeses. However, Edam is a semi-hard cheese that originated in the Netherlands, and is named after the town of Edam in the province of North Holland.
9. Monterey Jack cheese has a moisture content of 44% percent and a minimum of ___________% fat.
Answer: d [Reason:] Monterey Jack is an American semi hard cheese, customarily white, made using cow’s milk. It has moisture content of 44% and fat of 50 %.
10. If the dairy ingredients to be pasteurized have a fat content of 10% or more, the specified temperature shall be increased by ______degrees F.
Answer: c [Reason:] Fat content of the product alters the temperature requirement for pasteurization. It needs to be increased by 5 degree F if the fat content of 10% is present in the product.
11. Which of the following cheese is a unripen variety?
Answer: b [Reason:] Most of the lactose is removed when these cheeses are made. Aged (ripened) cheeses like Cheddar generally have less lactose than unripened (fresh) cheeses like cream cheese. Due to the creaming mixture used, creamed cottage cheese has slightly more lactose than dry curd cottage cheese.
12. One serving (8oz) of milk has about ______milligrams of calcium.
Answer: d [Reason:] Milk is an important source of calcium for our body. It has about 250 milligrams of calcium per 8 oz.
13. Ice cream must weight a minimum _______pounds to the gallon.
Answer: b [Reason:] Ice cream need to meet certain regulation. It should be a minimum weight of 4.5 pounds to a gallon.
14. The natural lipase enzyme contained in all raw milk is kept away from milk fat globules, thus preventing development of rancidity because the:
a) Fat globule membrane is a protective layer which covers the fat globules
b) The major protein, casein, ties up the lipase
c) Fat globules are very small to attract the enzyme until they are homogenized
d) Enzyme has to be activated by the heat of pasteurization
Answer: a [Reason:] Rancidity is caused by a chemical development, which continues until the milk is pasteurized. It involves lipase and other enzymes, which react with the milk fat. Keeping lipase away from the milk allows the fat globules to develop a membrane which covers it.
15. Cooperatives Working Together (CWT) is the ______program that aims to strengthen and stabilize milk prices by balancing supply and demand.
a) State funded
d) None of the mentioned
Answer: b [Reason:] Cooperatives Working Together (CWT) is a program designed exclusively by America’s dairy farmers for the benefit of America’s dairy farmers. It is a voluntary farmer-funded national program which is developed by the National Milk Producers Federation (NMPF), to preserve dairy family farmer businesses.
1. What are two types of culling in a dairy herd?
a) Forced culling
b) Choice culling
c) Forced culling and choice culling
d) No culling
Answer: c [Reason:] Culling is the departure of cows from the herd due to sale, slaughter, or death. In general, culling has been classified as forced or choice.
2. What are two causes of calf scours?
I. overfeeding milk
II. feeding from dirty pails
III. allowing calf to drink too fast
IV. unsanitary pens
a) I and II
b) II and III
c) I, II, III and IV
d) IV only
Answer: c [Reason:] Cause of infection in calf scours may be grouped as follows: Bacteria: Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Clostridium perfringens, and other bacteria. Other causes include overfeeding milk, feeding calf from dirty pails, allowing them to drink too fast and using unsanitary pens.
3. What is the seed portion of the plant called?
Answer: a [Reason:] Grain is the seed portion of the plant. “Grain crops” are grain seed producing plants.
4. How many feet should be allowed between one show person and another when circling in the show ring?
Answer: d [Reason:] It is advised to stop in a straight line head to tail. One should remember to check the calf and then stop by lifting its head. Allow 4 to 6 feet between your calf and the one in front. This allows the judge space to move freely around the cattle and helps to prevent calves from mounting or disturbing others in the line.
5. Colostrum has a higher percentage of what nutrients than normal milk?
b) Vitamin A and energy
d) Protein, energy, minerals, vitamin A
Answer: d [Reason:] Colostrum is a form of milk produced by the mammary glands of during pregnancy. .Colostrum consists of antibodies to protect the newborn against disease. In general, protein concentration in colostrum is substantially higher than in milk.
6. What two vitamins is milk high in?
a) A and D
Answer: a [Reason:] Milk contains small amounts of niacin, pantothenic acid, vitamin B6, vitamin C, and foliates and is not considered a major source of these vitamins in the diet. Milk contains the fat soluble vitamins A, and D.
7. What’s the major reason a cow may be culled by choice?
a) high production
c) low production
Answer: c [Reason:] Farmer has complete freedom of choice over which cows are removed from the herd. The major reason for culling by choice is low production of milk by cow.
8. What are two common baby calf diseases?
c) scour and pneumonia
Answer: c [Reason:] All calves are exposed to a variety of micro-organisms such as viruses, bacteria and protozoa as soon as they are born. Three important disease problems for young calves are septicemia, diarrhea, and pneumonia.
9. What is not an example of sources of grain protein supplements?
c) Linseed oil meal
d) Coconut oil
Answer: d [Reason:] Feeding 0.8 to 1.0 pounds daily per head of soybean meal, cottonseed meal or a similar 40 percent linseed oil meal has been more profitable for cattle.
10. When the judge is observing the left side of the dairy cow, where should the exhibitor be positioned?
d) in front of the cow
Answer: d [Reason:] Move as the judge or ring steward instructs. When judge observes the left side the exhibitor should be in front of the cow.
11. How early should a calf receive colostrums?
a) 1 day after born
b) 2 days after born
c) 12 hours after born
d) 30 minutes after born
Answer: d [Reason:] Colostrum is protein rich first milk of cow. It should be received 30 min after the calf is born.
12. Extra amounts of what vitamin are usually added to milk?
a) vitamin K
b) vitamin C
c) vitamin D
d) vitamin A
Answer: c [Reason:] Fortification of Vitamin D is a practice everywhere. It helps in bone health.
13. What is one of the two major reasons a cow would be forced culled?
a) Poor health
c) Poor health and Mastitis
d) Healthy cow
Answer: c [Reason:] Cows are culled by choice due to low productivity. However, they are forced to be culled in case of poor health and Mastitis.
14. What type of bedding is recommended for groups of calves?
Answer: a [Reason:] Calf should have a proper bedding to ensure rest and productivity. Bedding which consist of leaves, straw etc is recommended.
15. What is an example of a non protein nitrogen (NPN) used as a protein source in dairy feeds?
Answer: d [Reason:] Non-protein nitrogen compounds (NPN) are a group of high-protein feedstuffs. NPN feeds are feeds which contain nitrogen in a form other than peptides or proteins. Urea is a example of NPN.
1. What type of soap should be avoided when washing a dairy cow?
a) fragrant soap
b) soap with antimicrobial activity
c) soap with herbal treatment
d) soap with detergent
Answer: d [Reason:] The hindquarters, thighs and udder should be washed thoroughly before milking. It is advised to avoid detergent soap for washing.
2. What are dairy animals that are officially recorded in the breed association herd book called?
a) unregistered animal
b) token animal
c) unlicensed animal
d) registered animal
Answer: d [Reason:] A registered animal is officially entered on a register or list; formally recorded(of mail) sent using a Post Office service by which compensation is paid for loss or damage to mail for which a registration fee has been paid.
3. Most of what ingredient is removed from skim milk?
Answer: d [Reason:] Skim milk is basically milk having low percentage of fat. Thus, fat is removed from normal milk in order to make it skim milk.
4. The back of a dairy cow is made up of what two parts?
a) chine and loin
b) udder and skin
c) chine and udder
d) loin and bone
Answer: a [Reason:] Chine and loin make up the back of the dairy cow. These two are important for body balance.
5. What is the expected daily weight gain of a Holstein heifer calf from 200-800 pounds?
a) 1.5 pounds per day
b) 1.65 pounds per day
c) 1 pound per day
d) 2 pound pr day
Answer: b [Reason:] Calf is the new born baby cow. It is observed that a calf generally gains 1 pound per day daily.
6. What is the condition in which large amounts of gas is trapped in a calf’s stomach and the stomach gets big?
Answer: c [Reason:] Bloating is the condition in which the stomach of calf gets big. It is due to the air trapped inside the calf’s stomach.
7. Before entering the show ring, what is a question that the exhibitor should be prepared to answer about the animals?
I. Birth date and sire
II. Dam and breeding rate
III. Date use to calve
a) I. and II
b) II. And III
c) I, II, III, and IV
d) IV only
Answer: c [Reason:] Showman should have a lot of information about his cow. He is expected to know about birth date, sire, Dam, breeding rate, age etc of the cow.
8. What is the official record of registered animals of a breed kept by the breed association called?
a) cow book
b) bull book
c) heard book
Answer: c [Reason:] Registration is an important step to identify the cow. Official records of animal are kept in a heard book.
9. Milk that has all the water removed is called what?
a) powdered milk
c) flavor milk
d) condensed milk
Answer: a [Reason:] Milk has a high amount of water content. It can be removed with the help of dryer.The milk with all the water removed is powdered milk.
10. How many points are given to General Appearance on the Dairy Cow Unified Score Card?
a) 10 points
b) 20 points
c) 35 points
d) 40 points
Answer: c [Reason:] General Appearance is one of the parameter on which the cow is judged. It has about 35 points.
11. What is the process called when a calf is switched from milk or milk replaced to water and dry feed?
Answer: d [Reason:] Weaning is the gradual introduction of a calf to what will be its adult diet and withdrawing the supply of its mother’s milk. The process takes place only in mammals, as only mammals produce milk.
12. What percent of a calf’s weight should it receive in colostrum the first 3 days?
Answer: c [Reason:] Calf should receive about 3% of its weight in colostrum. Colostrum is protein rich milk the mother produces.
13. In relation to the grain of the hair, which direction should the tail be clipped?
a) opposite to grain of the hair
b) with the grain of the hair
c) parallel to grain of the hair
d) no relation
Answer: b [Reason:] Rule of thumb is never clip against the grain of the hair. An ear should be clipped with the direction of hair growth while holding the ear firmly, with the ear flap laying flat on your fingers.
14. What are two pieces of information not kept in the Herd Book kept by the breed association?
a) animals registration name, birth date
b) registration name and number of its sire and dam
c) name of the breeder and birth date
d) no of udders and skin color
Answer: d [Reason:] Herd book has lot of information about a particular breed. The information is regarding Animal but no of udders and skin color is not the part of this information.
15. What form of milk is made by churning of whipping cream?
Answer: d [Reason:] Butter is a popular dairy product made from cow’s milk. It is composed of milk fat that has been separated by churning of whipping cream from other milk components.
1. Milk is a good source of all water-soluble vitamins except for _____
c) Ascorbic Acid
Answer: c [Reason:] Milk is a rich source of vitamin. It contains all the essential vitamins except Ascorbic acid or vitamin C.
2. __________ is a milk process that makes milk more easily digested by those with a sensitive digestive system.
Answer: d [Reason:] Homogenization is the process of breakdown of fat globules into smaller particles. It aids in digestion for people who have sensitive digestive system.
3. _________ amino acids are commonly found in milk proteins, including the essential amino acids.
Answer: d [Reason:] Milk contains all the essential amino acids. Milk has a total of 19 amino acids.
4. Summer milk has been estimated to contain 1.6 times as much vitamin ____ as winter milk.
Answer: a [Reason:] Summer milk is rich in vitamin A as compared to winter milk. Vitamin A content in summer milk exceeds 1.6 times the vitamin A content in winter milk.
5. The milk becomes the property of the buyer once ?
a) The transport truck reaches the plant
b) It is loaded into the transport truck on the farm
c) The transport truck leaves the farm
d) It is unloaded into the processor’s bulk tanks
Answer: b [Reason:] Milk is the responsibility of the producer before it is loaded into the truck. Once loaded the responsibility of milk shift to buyer.
6. Cows with _____ have a higher incidence of mastitis because physical injury is more likely.
a) Sickled hocks
c) Lower foot angles
d) Pendulous udders
Answer: d [Reason:] Mastitis is a common cow disease due to infection in udders. Cows with pendulous udders are more prone to it.
7. Which of the following is untrue concerning the federal milk marketing orders?
a) They are legal instruments
b) It is a uniform system of classified pricing
c) Producers are not guaranteed a market
d) Sanitary restrictions on production are imposed on producers.
Answer: d [Reason:] Federal Milk Marketing Orders (FMMOs) establish certain provisions under which dairy processors purchase fresh milk from dairy farmers supplying a marketing area. All the options are true except sanitary restriction on produce being imposed on producers.
8. The _____ or uniform price is determined by the proportion of the total delivery used in products of these classes.
Answer: d [Reason:] Milk sellers and beverage processors choose to keep the milk that goes into other products associated with the order so that its value goes into the pool and producers receive the uniform price for it. The uniform price paid to producers is the weighted average of the class prices.
9. Under federal orders, dairy farmers receive their milk checks_____
a) Once or twice monthly
d) Directly from the FSA office
Answer: a [Reason:] Federal order lay down guidelines of payment Dairy farmers under these guidelines receive their milk checks once or twice a month.
10. To defray the cost of federal orders, handlers are assessed ____ per hundredweight of milk received.
a) 1-3 cents
b) 2-5 cents
c) 3-4 cents
d) 15 cents
Answer: b [Reason:] Transportation credits apply to shipments of milk for Class I use from supply plants to distributing plants. In the Upper Midwest order, the credits are paid to distributing plants at the rate of 2-5 cents per hundredweight per mile to help defray the cost of moving milk to the Class I market.
11. Which is a true statement concerning federal milk marketing orders?
a) Public hearings are held so that all interested parties may present their views
b) They remove the need for cooperatives
c) They are designed to weaken the bargaining power of single large dairy farmers
d) They assure the corrected weighting, testing and sanitary conditions of milk
Answer: a [Reason:] Federal milk orders remove the need of corporative; they are designed to weaken the bargaining power of single large dairy farm. Also they assure the corrected weighting, testing and sanitary conditions of milk.
12. The hormone oxytocin is released by the ____ gland.This act stimulates the mammary gland.
Answer: a [Reason:] In chemistry, oxytocin acts both as a hormone and as a brain neurotransmitter. The release of oxytocin by the pituitary gland acts to regulate two female reproductive functions.
13. Rubber parts readily absorb ____ and need to be cleaned in an alkaline detergent.
c) Milk fat
Answer: c [Reason:] Rubber parts of machine absorb milk fat. They need to be cleaned properly with alkaline detergent.
14. The main objection to dirt and milk stone on parts is _____
a) Vacuum fluctuations
b) Poor milkers function
c) Poor looks
d) Increased bacterial count
Answer: d [Reason:] Dirt and milk stone on machine part leads to increased bacterial cound. Proper sanitation using an alkaline detergent is required.
15. Badly dented or damaged milkers unit parts are caused by?
a) Strong chemicals
b) Improper design
c) Careless handling
Answer: c [Reason:] Dents and damage on machine parts are caused due to careless handling. Hence, machines need to be handled with care.