Multiple choice question for engineering
1. Soft fats in milk fat are __________
a) Lauric & Stearic
b) Capric & Lauric
c) Oleic & Butyric
d) Oleic & Lauric
Answer: c [Reason:] That pinchable fat, also known as subcutaneous fat, acts as insulation and a source of energy for your body. Oleic and butyric are soft fat in milk.
2. Principal protein in milk is___________
Answer: c [Reason:] Proteins are the building blocks of human body. Principal protein present in milk is Casein.
3. Percentage of mineral matter in milk is about ________
a) 1 %
b) 0.7 %
c) 1.5 %
d) 0.05 %
Answer: b [Reason:] Milk is the source of mineral. About 0.7% is the mineral matter present in milk.
4. Whey is the by-product in the manufacture of?
a) Skimmed milk
Answer: c [Reason:] Whey is the liquid remaining after milk has been curdled and strained. It is a byproduct of the manufacture of cheese or casein and has several commercial uses.
5. Which of the following is an example of soft cheese is?
Answer: d [Reason:] Soft cheese is probably our most popular category. This category includes some of the most beloved cheeses in our store, like the ever-popular Brie and Camembert, as well as our incredible selection of double and triple cream cheeses like cottage cheese.
6. How many indigenous enzymes have been reported in bovine milk?
Answer: c [Reason:] Bovine milk contains the nutrients needed for growth and development of the calf, and is a resource of lipids, proteins, amino acids, vitamins and minerals. It has about 50 indigenous enzymes present in it.
7. Destruction of which enzyme is used as an index of super-HTST pasteurization?
Answer: c [Reason:] Lactoperoxidase is an enzyme. It is used as an indicator of super- HTST pasteurization.
8. Rennet belongs to:-
Answer: c [Reason:] Rennet is a complex of enzymes produced in the stomachs of ruminant mammals. It belongs to the category of proteinases.
9. Temperature used in UHT treatment is:-
a) 90-100 °C
b) 100-120 °C
c) 120-125 °C
d) 130-140 °C
Answer: d [Reason:] Ultra-high temperature processing (UHT) milk is heated to above 135 °C (275 °F) .This is the temperature required to kill spores in milk – for 1 to 2 seconds.
10. Lactose is disaccharide which contains?
a) Glucose & Fructose
b) Glucose & Glactose
c) Glucose & Glucose
d) Glucose & Maltose
Answer: b [Reason:] Lactose is primary milk sugar. It is made of glucose and galactose.
11. CaCl2 is added at the rate of ________
a) 0.5 %
b) 0.8 %
c) 0.02 %
d) 0.08 %
Answer: c [Reason:] CaCl2 is added to milk during cheese making process. It must be added at the rate of 0.02%.
12. Which one is used as an emulsifying agent in process cheese blend?
d) Whey Powder
Answer: c [Reason:] Emulsifying agents are both fat soluble and water soluble. Emulsifying agents enable fat to be uniformly dispersed in water as an emulsion. Glycerides are emulsifying agents used in butter.
13. People with high blood pressure or edema are advised to take ________
a) Multivitamin Mineral Milk
b) Low Sodium Milk
c) Sterile Milk
d) Low Lactose Milk
Answer: b [Reason:] Low sodium milk is recommended to people with high blood pressure. High amount of sodium in milk has adverse effect on their health.
14. Normal bovine milk contains what amount of protein?
Answer: c [Reason:] Bovine milk contains the nutrients needed for growth and development of the calf, and is a resource of lipids, proteins, amino acids, vitamins and minerals. It has 3.5% protein.
15. The aim of pasteurization milk is to ______
a) Improve flavor
b) Kill disease producing organisms
c) Improve color
Answer: b [Reason:] Pasteurization is a phenomenon of heat treating a liquid or a food to kill pathogenic bacteria to make the food safe to eat. The use of pasteurization to kill pathogenic bacteria has aided to reduce the transmission of diseases.
1. True about cow’s milk are all except :
a) Cow’s milk contains 80% whey protein not casein
b) Cow milk has less carbohydrate than mother’s milk
c) Has more K+ and Na+ than infant formula feeds
d) Has more protein than breast milk
Answer: a [Reason:] Cow milk has less carbohydrate than mother’s milk; cow milk has more K+ and Na+ than infant formula feeds and cow milk has more protein than breast milk are all false.
2. What is the moisture content of cow milk?
Answer: c [Reason:] Cows’ milk consists of about 87% water and 13% dry substance. It is considered to have elements of a complete balanced diet.
3. What is the fat percentage of cow milk?
Answer: d [Reason:] Cow milk has 4% fat percent. It has a SNF (Solid not Fat) 8.5-9%. Rest is water.
4. Milk is an emulsion of _____ in water.
Answer: a [Reason:] Milk is a suspension of droplets of one liquid in another. Milk is an emulsion of fat in water.
5. In milk the whey proteins are in _____ solution and the casein in colloidal suspension.
Answer: b [Reason:] Colloidal suspension constitutes of casein and Colloidal solution constitutes of whey proteins. They together make up milk.
6. Approximate size of fat globules in milk solution is:
a) 10–2 to 10–3
b) 10–4 to 10–5
c) 10–5 to 10–6
d) 10–6 to 10–7
Answer: a [Reason:] Size of fat globules in milk solution is 10–2 to 10–3. Fat is bound in the globular form by phospholipids membranes, which are hydrophobic.
7. Which of the following can be the method to compute fat crystallization in cow milk?
Answer: c [Reason:] The NMR method can also be utilized to find out the degree of fat crystallization as a function of the time of crystallization.
8. _________ Value states the % of iodine that the fat can bind.
c) Fatty acid
Answer: b [Reason:] Iodine value states the percentage of iodine that the fat can bind. Iodine is taken up by the double bonds of the unsaturated fatty acids.
9. Milk has all the essential amino acid. State true or false?
Answer: a [Reason:] An important fact with regard to nutrition is that eight (nine for infants) of the 20 amino acids cannot be synthesized by the human organism. All of them are present in milk protein.
10. Name the organic compounds which have amines and carboxyl functional group in them.
a) Amino acid
c) Carboxylic acid
Answer: a [Reason:] This refers to the structure of amino acid. They are organic compounds containing amines and carboxyl functional group.
11. Casein cannot be classified as :
a) α- casein
b) β- casein
d) Delta- casein
Answer: d [Reason:] Casein is a group of proteins commonly found in mammalian milk. They can be classified α- casein; β- casein and κ-casein.
12. Which of the following ways is not to make caseinate particles flocculate and coagulate?
a) Precipitation by acid
b) Precipitation by enzymes
c) Precipitation by water
d) None of the mentioned
Answer: c [Reason:] Precipitation by acid and precipitation by enzymes are the ways make caseinate particles flocculate and coagulate. A precipitate is a solid that forms out of liquid.
13. Which of the following is/are whey protein?
a) α – lactalbumin
b) β – lactoglobulin
c) κ- lactis
d) α – lactalbumin and β – lactoglobulin
Answer: d [Reason:] The whey proteins are: α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin. Whey protein is a composite of globular proteins isolated from whey, the liquid material created as a by-product of cheese production.
14. Which of the following fat soluble vitamins are present in milk?
Answer: c [Reason:] Milk contains many vitamins. Among the best known are A, B1, B2, C and D. Vitamins A and D are soluble in fat, or fat solvents, while the others are soluble in water.
15. Combination of glucose (C6H12O6) and galactose (C6H12O6) molecules result in:
Answer: c [Reason:] Glucose and galactose combine to form lactose. Lactose is the primary milk sugar.
1. The gestation period for cow is:
a) 9 months
b) 1 year
c) 2 year
d) 3 months
Answer: a [Reason:] Fetal development period from the time of conception until birth i.e. gestation period for cow is nine months.
2. After calving the cow gives milk for how many months:
a) 2 months
b) 6 months
c) 10 months
d) 1 year
Answer: c [Reason:] After giving birth the cow lactates for about 10 month.
3. Amount of blood through udder needed for formation of 1 litre of milk:
a) 100 litres
b) 200- 300 litres
c) 800- 900 litres
d) 500-600 litres
Answer: c [Reason:] 800 – 900 l of blood required for formation of one litre of milk. Usually 850 litres of blood is used up.
4. The first milk the cow produces after calving is called:
Answer: b [Reason:] First milk produced by the cow after giving birth is called colostrum. This special milk is yellow to orange in color and thick and sticky.
5. _____ Hormone that need to be released in order to start milking:
Answer: a [Reason:] to start the milking process it is very important that oxytoxin is released from the cow’s body.
6. Milking is done by which of the following methods:
a) Hand Milking
b) Machine Milking
c) Hand Milking and machine milking
Answer: c [Reason:] Milking can be done both by hand and by machine. But automated milking is preferred over manual milking as it reduces the risk to contamination.
7. Milk should be kept at ____ temperature as soon as it leaves the cow udder.
Answer: a [Reason:] Milk should be kept at 4℃ .It has been found that at 4℃ the growth of pathogenic microorganisms stops.
8. Which is not a consequence of season milk production is________
a) Seasonal swings in price
b) Excess manufacturing capacity
c) Excess milk production in the spring
Answer: d [Reason:] Seasonal swings in price, excess manufacturing capacity and excess milk production in the spring all are consequences to seasonal milk production.
9. The leading cause of high bacteria counts in raw milk is_________
a) Younger cows
b) Poor sanitation
c) Older cows
Answer: b [Reason:] Poor sanitation attributes to the high bacteria count in the milk. It leads to downgrade of quality.
10. After milking a cow, the cows teats should be dipped___________
a) after 2 minutes
b) after 1 minute
c) after 30 seconds
Answer: d [Reason:] It is advisable that the cow’s teats should be dipped immediately after milking.
11. Generally, which breed produces the largest volume of milk?
d) Brown Swiss
Answer: c [Reason:] Holstein breed produces largest volume of milk as compared to Aryshire, jersey and brown Swiss.
12. Milk from a cow with mastitis will have__________
a) abnormal freezing point
b) a high somatic cell count
c) both a and b
d) abnormal boiling point
Answer: c [Reason:] Milk from a cow with mastitis will have abnormal freezing point and a high somatic cell count. This milk should not be consumed.
13. Name (General) for a class of bacteria that causes mastitis in dairy cattle.
Answer: b [Reason:] Mastitis in dairy cattle is caused by Staphylococcus. Mastitis is a bacterial disease which leads to inflammation in mammary glands of cow.
14. Mostly healthy open cows will start a new reproductive cycle every ______ days.
Answer: b [Reason:] Reproductive cycle for healthy cows start every 21-28 days.
15. Percentage of water in buffalo milk is:
a) 65-67 %
b) 70-75 %
c) 80-85 %
d) 87-90 %
Answer: d [Reason:] buffalo has 87-90 % water in its milk and 10-13% other material.
1. What is the most common breed of dairy cow?
c) Brown Swiss
Answer: a [Reason:] Holstein Friesians are a breed of dairy cattle originating from the Dutch provinces of North Holland and Friesland, and Schleswig-Holstein in Northern Germany and Jutland. They are known as the world’s highest-production dairy animals.
2. What is the cow’s first milk called?
Answer: c [Reason:] Colostrum is a form of milk produced by the mammary glands of cows during pregnancy. Most species will generate colostrum just prior to giving birth.
3. What are six nutrients animals need?
II. fat and protein
IV. mineral and water
a) I only
b) II and III
c) III and IV
d) I, II, III, and IV
Answer: d [Reason:] There are seven major classes of nutrients: carbohydrates, fats, fiber, minerals, protein, vitamin, and water. The macronutrients (excluding fiber and water) provide structural material (amino acids from which proteins are built, and lipids from which cell membranes and some signaling molecules are built) and energy.
4. How soon before the show should an exhibitor begin fitting and training animals?
b) 2 months
c) 1 year
Answer: b [Reason:] The purpose of proper fitting and showmanship is to present your animal to its best advantage for evaluation by. Fitting and training should begin 2 months before the show.
5. What is a male dairy animal called?
Answer: a [Reason:] A bull is an intact (i.e., not castrated) adult male of the species Bos taurus (cattle).It is the male dairy animal.
6. One group of mammals eats meat and are called carnivores. What is the group that eats grass and grains called?
Answer: d [Reason:] cows are animal which doesn’t eat meat. They survive on grass and feed. They are called herbivores.
7. Which of the following are three common breeds of dairy cows in the United States?
a) I only
b) II only
c) III only
d) I, II, III
Answer: d [Reason:] Holstein, Guernsey and jersey are most popular cattle breeds. Apart from them lesser known are Swiss brown.
8. What special ingredient in colostrums helps fight infection and disease in the newborn calf?
Answer: d [Reason:] Most species will generate colostrum just prior to giving birth. Colostrum contains antibodies to protect the newborn against disease.
9. What is the nutrient that eventually becomes part of muscle, bone and blood?
Answer: a [Reason:] Proteins are the building blocks of a body. Protein consumption end up being a part of muscle, bone and blood.
10. What purpose is served by covering a dairy show animal with a blanket?
I. loosens the hair
II. keeps animal clean
a) I only
b) II only
c) I and II
Answer: c [Reason:] Covering animal helps in loosening of hair. Covering the animal with blanket also aid in keeping the animal clean.
11. The time between conception and parturition is called ______
a) reproduction period
b) gestation period
c) feed period
Answer: b [Reason:] Gestation length varies by age of dam, breed, and sex of the calf. Gestation length ranges from 279 to 287 days. For most breeds, 283 days is common. Cows having bull calves tend to have a slightly longer gestation compared to cows having heifer calves.
12. What breed of dairy cow came to the United States from Holland?
b) Brown Swiss
Answer: a [Reason:] The Holstein cow originated in Europe. The major historical development of this breed occurred in what is now the Netherlands and more specifically in the two northern provinces of North Holland and Friesland which lay on either side of the Zuider Zee.
13. What two colors is the Holstein breed?
a) grey and white
b) brown and black
c) black and white
d) white and brown
Answer: c [Reason:] Holsteins are big, stylish animals with color patterns of black and white. A healthy Holstein calf weighs 90 pounds or more at birth. A mature Holstein cow weighs about 1500 pounds and stand 58 inches tall at the shoulder.
14. What is the process called whereby milk is heated to a high temperature?
d) vacuum treatment
Answer: c [Reason:] Pasteurization is heat treatment processing a liquid or a food to kill pathogenic bacteria to make the food safe to eat. The use of pasteurization to kill pathogenic bacteria has helped reduce the transmission of diseases.
15. Which vitamin keeps eye and body cell linings healthy and working?
a) vitamin D
b) vitamin C
c) vitamin K
d) vitamin A
Answer: d [Reason:] Vitamin A helps form and maintains healthy skin, teeth, skeletal and soft tissue, mucus membranes, and skin. It is also known as retinol because it produces the pigments in the retina of the eye. Vitamin A promotes good vision, especially in low light.
1. When showing cows, where should the hind foot nearest the judge be when the animal is posed?
a) two steps back
b) one half step forward
c) three step back
d) lying down
Answer: b [Reason:] The hind leg nearest the judge is posed slightly behind the other about the distance of one half steps forward. Animal should be trained so the exhibitor can move quickly and easily into the correct pose. . Face animal uphill, if possible, with her front feet on a slight incline.
2. At what age should a brucellosis vaccination be given to a calf?
a) 2-6 months
b) 3 months
d) 8 months
Answer: a [Reason:] For active immunization of female cattle calves and buffalo’s calves against Brucella abortus infection brucellosis vaccination should be administered. It should be administered at the age of 2-6 months.
3. What is a group of dairy cattle called?
Answer: d [Reason:] Herd is a large group of animals, especially hoofed mammals that live together or are kept together as livestock.
4. What are two important sire selection tools?
a) Predicted Difference and repeatability
b) Predicted life
c) Predicted death
d) Predicted age
Answer: a [Reason:] Bull selection presents an important opportunity to enhance the profitability. Predicted difference and repeatability are two very important sire selection tools.
5. What are two ways to identify a calf?
I. photos or color sketches
II. freeze bands, ear tags
III. neck chain, ankle straps
a) I only
b) II only
c) II and III
d) I, II, III
Answer: d [Reason:] Photos, color sketches help in calf identification. Freeze bands, ear tags, neck chains and ankle chains also aid in indentifying the calf.
6. What is the largest single part of all living things?
Answer: c [Reason:] Body is made up of approximately 80% water. It is the largest portion of any living body.
7. When posing a dairy cow, why are the back legs set up so the one nearest the judge is one half steps forward?
a) rear and fore udder attachment
Answer: a [Reason:] When posing and showing a dairy animal, stay on the animal’s left side and stand .For cows and springing heifers, the hind leg nearest the judge should be.hind foot must be one and half foot back.
8. An IBR-PI, pneumonia vaccination should first be given to a calf at what month of age?
b) 4 months
c) A year
d) 8 months
Answer: b [Reason:] – Mostly a disease of older cattle but may contribute to calf pneumonia on IBR positive farms. All cattle and calves can be given a live vaccine in the face of an outbreak. The vaccine should be administered 4 months after the birth.
9. What is a baby dairy cow called?
Answer: c [Reason:] A calf (plural, calves) is the young of domestic cattle. Calves are reared to become adult cattle, or are slaughtered for their meat, called veal, and for their calf skin.
10. Who calculates the official USDA DHIA Sire Summary?
Answer: a [Reason:] USDA-DHIA Sire Summaries are published semiannually and provide the dairy industry with an accurate evaluation of the transmitting ability of bulls for milk and milk components. It is calculated by USDA.
11. How long the cherry hot electric dehorning iron should be applied to each horn button on a calf?
a) 10-15 sec
b) 15-20 sec
c) 1 min
d) 2 min
Answer: a [Reason:] Cherry hot electric dehorning iron is used to remove horns from cattle using the hot-iron method. It should not be applied for more than 10-15 sec.
12. What nutrient acts as a lubricant and regulates body heat?
a) Vitamin A
Answer: c [Reason:] Water is the best lubricant in human body, It also act as an excellent heat regulator in the body.
13. How should all movements and positioning of a dairy animal and her feet be accomplished?
a) halter command
b) feet pushing
c) body pushing
d) hand pushing
Answer: a [Reason:] Training an animal to lead by halter, this is required at shows and fairs. The latter involves unspoken and verbal commands between your animal and the master.
14. How many months prior to breeding a heifer should both leptospirosis and vibriosis vaccinations be given?
a) 1-2 prior to breeding
b) 3-4 prior to breeding
c) 4-5 prior to breeding
d) 6-7 prior to breeding
Answer: a [Reason:] Vibriosis vaccine is often combined with Leptospirosis in one vaccine. The use of artificial insemination is also valuable in limiting disease spread. It should be administered 1-2 months prior to breeding a heifer.
15. What is the most common of all dairy foods?
Answer: d [Reason:] Milk is the most common dairy food. It is the basic raw material of several other dairy products.