Multiple choice question for engineering
1. Farm water supplies must be protected from surface contamination. Water is usually tested for __________ as an indicator of possible sewage contamination.
a) Proteolytic bacteria
b) Lipolytic bacteria
c) Coliform bacteria
d) Psychotropic bacteria
Answer: c [Reason:] In order to protect far water from surface contamination, the water is tested for coliform bacteria. If it tests positive thus water is infected.
2. Specific gravity of milk at 60ºF is __________.
Answer: b [Reason:] Specific gravity is the ratio of the density of a substance to the density of a reference substance; equivalently, it is the ratio of the mass of a substance to the mass of a reference substance for the same given volume. Specific gravity of milk is 1.032 at 60ºF.
3. The International Dairy Federations (IDF) mission is to promote ______________.
a) Scientific, cultural & economic progress
b) Agricultural, technical & economic progress
c) Technical, scientific & industrial progress
d) Scientific, technical & economic progress
Answer: d [Reason:] The International Dairy Federation is the leading source of scientific and technical expertise for all stakeholders of the dairy chain. IDF’s mission is to help nourish the world with safe and sustainable dairy, thus it promotes scientific, technical and economic progress.
4. USDA reports net prices received by dairy farmers for milk, usually the prices are published on a map to show regional differences. The prices are referred to as ________________.
a) Blend prices
b) Regional prices
c) Mailbox prices
d) BFP prices
Answer: c [Reason:] The “mailbox price” is defined as the net price received by dairy farmers for milk, including all payments received for milk sold and deducting costs associated with marketing the milk.
5. The “set aside” of $0.15 per hundred pounds of milk from a milk producer’s check is used in programs that support ______
a) Promotions & research
b) Research & testing
c) Teaching & promotion
d) Promotion & teaching
Answer: d [Reason:] Promotion and teaching is n important aspect of dairy. $0.15 per hundred pound of milk is used in order to support this initiative.
6. Onion and garlic are responsible for the garlic/onion off-flavor in milk, and are more prevalent in pasture during __________
c) Early and late summer
d) Early spring and late fall
Answer: d [Reason:] Early spring and late fall leads to higher production of onion and garlic. Thus such off flavor are more prevalent in the milk of cow’s feeding on these pastures during this duration.
7. Chemical sanitizers containing __________ are most widely used for sanitizing milking equipment.
Answer: c [Reason:] Chlorine is an very effective sanitizer. It is used to sanitize milking equipement.
8. Milk found in cows with a high somatic cell count would result in a decrease in __________
b) Whey protein
d) Trace minerals
Answer: c [Reason:] Somatic cell count in milk shouldn’t exceed the prescribed limit. High somatic count would lead to decrease in amount of casein.
9. Milk is a good supplier of minerals except for _____
Answer: a [Reason:] Milk is a all round nutritional product. It is rich in most of the minerals except Magnesium-Iron-Manganese-Copper.
10. Adulterants of milk that are detrimental to human health are _____
Answer: b [Reason:] Pesticides are adulterant which is very harmful for human health. They lead to cancers.
11. Water added to milk is detected by checking the _____
a) Acid degree value
b) Sediment content
c) Titratable acidity
d) Freezing point
Answer: d [Reason:] Freezing point check is the best method to check the adulteration in milk by water. The freezing point goes down as water is added.
12. Milk with low total solids will produce what off-flavor?
Answer: a [Reason:] Flat off flavor is persistent in milk with low total solids. Hence milk should have sufficient total solid.
13. A cryoscopy is an important tool that test for __________ in milk.
d) Added water
Answer: d [Reason:] Apart from freezing point check, cryoscopy is a tool which helps in checking added water in milk. Cryoscopy is the process of determination of the lowered freezing points produced in liquid by dissolved substances in order to determine molecular weights of solutes and various properties of solutions.
14. Milk is the only source of __________ in nature.
d) Fatty acids
Answer: c [Reason:] Lactose is the major milk carbohydrate. It is only found in milk in nature.
15. Which of the following is not an important reason for a five day-seven degree shelf life test?
a) Psychotropic bacteria reproduce at this temperature
b) Data made available for control application in a reasonable time
c) It lowers variability among cartons of milk
d) The Temperature is at or near the maximum at which milk will be stored
Answer: c [Reason:] Out of the above options lower variability among cartons of milks isn’t a important reason for shelf life test. All the other are important in shelf life testing.
1. To make Mozzarella cheese the pasteurized milk is curded at ____________degrees F.
Answer: b [Reason:] Mozzarella is a traditionally southern Italian dairy product made from Italian buffalo’s milk . Milk is curdled at 88 degree F.
2. The advantage of making processed cheese is?
a) Better taste
c) Extended shelf-life
d) Non uniformity
Answer: c [Reason:] Processed cheese has several technical advantages over natural cheese, including a far longer shelf-life, resistance to separating when cooked (melt ability), and a uniform look and physical behavior. Because processed cheese does not separate when melted, it is used as an ingredient in a variety of dishes.
3. The current U.S. per capita consumption of milk is approximately _____ gallons per year.
Answer: b [Reason:] Whole Milk Consumption Falling, Low-Fat Milk Consumption Steady. US per capita consumption of milk is 20 gallons per year.
4. Today, an average dairy cow produces approximately ____ quarts of milk per cow annually.
Answer: d [Reason:] The average cow in the U.S. produces about 21,000 lbs. of milk per year, that’s nearly 8800 quarts a year! On a daily basis, most cows average about 70 lbs. of milk per day, or about 8 gallons per day. 8 gallons is about 128 glasses of milk per day.
5. In what year were Federal milk-marketing orders reformed?
Answer: b [Reason:] Federal milk market orders were reformed. The reformation took palace in 2000.
6. Milk marketed, today as low-fat milk has no more than _____% milk fat.
Answer: d [Reason:] Low-fat milk contains 1% milk fat. Fat-free milk, also called nonfat or skim, contains no more than 0.2% milk fat.
7. The whey proteins in milk constitutes about _____% of the protein found in milk.
Answer: c [Reason:] Whey proteins are present in milk as a form of protein. They constitute about 18% of milk protein.
8. Adolescents have a recommendation of _________ milligrams of calcium per day.
Answer: c [Reason:] Calcium is very important for infants for their bone health. It has be recommended that adolescents have least 1300 milligrams of calcium per day.
9. If vitamin A is added to milk, it must be at a level of no less than ______ international units (I.U.) per quart.
Answer: d [Reason:] Vitamin is often added to the milk. In case of this addition , Vitamin A level shouldn’t be less than 2000 I.U. per quarts.
10. Butter production now accounts for _______% of the total milk supply.
Answer: c [Reason:] Butter is a very popular dairy product. Its production is now 18% of total milk supply.
11. Light whipping cream has a minimum of _____% milk fat.
Answer: b [Reason:] Heavy Whipping Cream has a fat content of 36% or greater. Light Cream generally sits on 30%.
12. Today, milk that has been ultra pasteurized must have been heated at or above ______degrees F for at last ________ seconds.
a) 191, 2
b) 212, 3
c) 260, 2
d) 280, 2
Answer: d [Reason:] Ultra Pasteurization (UP), or Ultra High Temperature (UHT) pasteurization, is the process of heating milk to approximately 280 °F for just 2 seconds and then chilling it back down rapidly. The result is milk that’s 99.9% free from bacteria.
13. It takes approximately ____ pounds of skim milk to make a pound of dry curd cottage cheese.
Answer: b [Reason:] Skim milk is required to make dry curd cottage cheese. Around 7.3 pounds od skim milk is required to make 1 pound of this cheese.
14. It takes approximately _____pounds of skim milk to make one pound of non-fat dry-milk.
Answer: b [Reason:] Skim milk is used in the preparation of non fat dry milk. The preparation of 1 pound of non fat dry milk consumes about 11 pounds of skim milk.
15. The leading state in 2009 in pounds of milk per dairy cow was?
a) New Mexico
Answer: a [Reason:] New Mexico was reported to be the state with leading pounds of milk per dairy cow. This was reported for the year 2009.
1. Milk secreted in the udder is virtually sterile. State true or false.
Answer: a [Reason:] When milk is secreted in the udder it is virtually sterile. Milk, even before it leaves the udder it is infected by bacteria which enter through the teat channel.
2. Which of the following is not a source of infection in milk?
a) Milker and cow
c) Ambient air
Answer: d [Reason:] When cows are milked by hand, bacteria can get into the milk via the milker, the cow, the litter and the ambient air. Hence, milker and cow are primary source of infection.
3. Which of the following is the characteristic of good quality milk?
a) CFU<1000000 per ml
b) CFU>1000000 per ml
c) CFU=1000000 per ml
d) CFU>1500000 per ml
Answer: a [Reason:] CFU is Colony Forming Units. For milk to be classed as top quality, the bacteria count, the CFU, should be less than 100 000 per ml.
4. Lactic acid bacteria ferment which of the following forming lactic acid?
Answer: c [Reason:] Lactic acid bacteria prefer lactose as a source of carbon. They ferment lactose to lactic acid.
5. Which among the following is not a bacterial group which occurs in milk?
a) Lactic acid bacteria
b) Coliform bacteria
c) Putrefaction bacteria
d) Carboxylic acid bacteria
Answer: d [Reason:] The groups of bacteria which occur in milk can be divided into lactic acid bacteria, coliform bacteria, butyric acid bacteria, propionic acid bacteria and putrefaction bacteria.
6. Which bacteria is responsible for ripening Emmenthal cheese?
a) Lactobacillus helveticus and Lb. bulgaricus
d) Streptococcus diacetylactis
Answer: a [Reason:] Lactobacillus helveticus and Lb. bulgaricus are the bacilli responsible for ripening Emmenthal cheese. They are added to cheese milk as a pure culture together with Str. thermophilus.
7. Coliform bacteria leads to _________
a) Off-flavor and smell
b) Gas formation
c) Off-flavor, smell and gas formation
d) Fruity taste
Answer: c [Reason:] Coliform bacteria can cause serious trouble in cheese making. Besides causing off flavor, the relatively strong gas formation will result in an unwanted texture.
8. Presence of coliform in milk pipelines after pasteurization indicates:
a) Excessive hygiene
b) Poor sanitation
Answer: b [Reason:] Coliform bacteria are found in milk and pipelines after the pasteurizer, this is a sign of reinfection. It indicates that cleaning and disinfection routines need to be improved.
9. Which bacteria are also known as “The cheese destroyer”?
a) Propionic acid bacteria
c) Lactic acid bacteria
d) Butyric acid bacteria
Answer: d [Reason:] : Clostridium tyrobutyricum and Clostridium butyricum are both butyric acid bacteria also known as “cheese Destroyers”.They are responsible for spoilage of cheese.
10. Non bacterial ropiness or sliminess in milk and milk products may be due which of the following reasons?
a) Stringiness due to mastitis and in particular by fibrin and leucocytes from the cow’s blood
b) Sliminess resulting from the thickness of the cream
c) Stringiness due to thin films of casein or lactalbumin during cooling
Answer: d [Reason:] : Stringiness due to mastitis and in particular by fibrin and leucocytes from the cow’s blood; sliminess resulting from the thickness of the cream and Stringiness due to thin films of casein or lactalbumin during cooling may contribute to non bacterial ropiness in milk.
11. The yoghurt is made from ________
a) Lactobacillus bulgaricus
b) Streptococcus thermophilus
c) S. cremoris
d) Mixed culture of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus
Answer: d [Reason:] Yogurt is a cultured milk product. It is made from Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus.
12. Cheese cancer of Swiss and similar cheese is caused by?
a) Oospora Crustacea
b) Oospora caseovorans
c) Oospora aurianticum
d) S. cremoris
Answer: b [Reason:] Oospora caseovorans spoils swiss cheese and is hence responsible for cheese cancer. These organisms spoil the cheese.
13. Bacteria which cause diseases in humans, animals and plants are called __________
a) Anaerobic bacteria
b) Aerobic bacteria
c) Pathogenic bacteria
d) Non pathogenic bacteria
Answer: c [Reason:] Organisms which produce diseases are called pathogenic bacteria. These organisms bring about disease in human beings, animals and plants by attacking and breaking down living cells and producing poisonous substances.
14. What is pigment or color production by bacteria called?
Answer: d [Reason:] The process of color production is called chromogenesis. The organism causing the production is referred to as chromogenic.
15. Which of the following species of Clostridium is responsible for formation of dark green to black colors in cheese?
a) Clostridium tyrobutyricum
b) Clostridium sporogenes
c) Clostridium herbarum
d) None of the mentioned
Answer: c [Reason:] Clostridium herbarum gives the dark green to black color in cheese. It is one of the species of clostridium.
1. _____ is the smallest building block of all matter in nature and cannot be divided chemically.
Answer: d [Reason:] Atom is the smallest particle of a chemical element that can exist. They cannot be divided chemically.
2. A Substance in which all the atoms are of same kind is called ______
Answer: c [Reason:] Chemical substance interconvert able or broken down into simpler substances and are primary constituents of matter is called element. They have atoms of same kind.
3. Approximately how many elements are known to us?
c) More than 100
Answer: c [Reason:] We know existence of more than 100 elements. 115 elements have been discovered so far.
4. What constitutes the nucleus of the atom?
d) Proton and neutron
Answer: d [Reason:] Proton and Neutron are present in the nucleus of the atom. They are together known as nucleons.
5. The charge on proton is _____
d) Both positive and Negative
Answer: a [Reason:] Proton is positively charged ion. They have a mass of 1 atomic unit. They are present in the nucleus of the atom.
6. The charge on Electron is _______
d) Both positive and Negative
Answer: b [Reason:] Electron is negatively charged. Electron is a subatomic particle with a charge of negative electricity. It is found in all atoms and acting as the primary carrier of electricity in solids.
7. The charge on neutron is ______
Answer: c [Reason:] Neutron is neutral, having no charge on itself.
8. Smallest part of an element that cannot exist as a free state is :
Answer: a [Reason:] Ion is the smallest part of an element .It cannot exist as a free state. Ion can be an atom or molecule with a net electric charge due to the loss or gain of one or more electrons.
9. What are positively charged Ions in a solution called?
Answer: a [Reason:] Cation is a positively charged ion. It will be attracted to cathode in electrolysis.
1. Atoms of the same element or of different elements combine into larger units which are called ______
Answer: b [Reason:] A molecule represents a smallest fundamental unit of a chemical compound that can take part in a chemical reaction. Molecule is a group of atoms bonded together.
2. C3H603 is the chemical formula for _____
a) Ascorbic Acid
b) Lactic Acid
c) Tartaric Acid
Answer: b [Reason:] Lactic acid has the following chemical formula. It can be breakdown using Lactic acid bacteria for fermentation.
3. Modern model of atom shows that electrons are outside nucleus in region of high:
d) Energy level
Answer: a [Reason:] Modern model of atom shows that electrons are outside nucleus. They are present in the region of high probability.
4. Chemical symbol is the representation of
a) Chemical formula
b) Molecular formula
c) Structural formula
d) Atomic Formula
Answer: a [Reason:] Chemical Symbol represents a chemical formula. Molecular formula is a chemical formula that gives the total number of atoms of each element in each molecule of a substance.
5. Smaller particles in atom are called ________
a) Atomic particles
b) Sub-atomic particles
c) Smaller particles
d) Neutral particles
Answer: b [Reason:] Sub atomic particles are any of numerous subatomic constituents of the physical world that interact with each other, including electrons, neutrinos, photons, and alpha particles.
6. Most part of the atom is
Answer: a [Reason:] Major part of the atom is void. Nucleus carries proton and neutron responsible for most of the weight of the atom.
7. Number of Protons and electrons in an atom are :
Answer: b [Reason:] An atom has equal number of protons and electrons. They are fixed.
8. An electric field deflects beams of :
d) Protons and electrons
Answer: d [Reason:] An electric field deflects the beams of both positively charged protons and negatively charged electrons.