Multiple choice question for engineering
1. Based on ice cream consumption figures, the second most popular flavor is?
b) Cookies n’ cream
Answer: d [Reason:] Vanilla is the USA favorite. The second most popular flavor in ice creams is chocolate.
2. Under Federal milk marketing orders Class III milk is used to make?
a) Ripened cheeses
b) Cottage cheese
c) Butter and dry milks
d) Ice cream
Answer: a [Reason:] Milk is divided among 4 classes according to federal milk marketing orders. Class III milk is used to make ripened cheese.
3. According to a report compiled by the Institute for Food Technologists, _________is now America’s favorite at-home snacks.
c) Ice cream
d) Chocolate Milk
Answer: b [Reason:] IFT makes report in order to access the latest American favorites. According to it yogurt is the Americas favorite at home snacks.
4. In regards to commodities, what best defines hedging?
a) Taking no action
b) The act of buying and selling stock
c) The act of protecting yourself against price possibilities
d) The act of buying and selling commodities
Answer: c [Reason:] A hedge is an investment to reduce the risk of adverse price movements in an asset. Normally, a hedge consists of taking an offsetting position in a related security, such as a futures contract. Hedging deals with act of buying and selling stocks.
5. When it comes to fertilizing fields, what three nutrients are known as the “secondary nutrients”?
a) Calcium, nitrogen and water
b) Calcium, sulfur and magnesium
c) Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium
d) Potassium, phosphorus and zinc
Answer: b [Reason:] Nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium are referred to as primary nutrients and must be supplied periodically to turf through fertilizer applications. Calcium, magnesium, and sulfur, the secondary nutrients, are needed only occasionally in the form of fertilizer or lime.
6. A fluid milk product that contains at least 8.25% nonfat milk solids and no more than 0.5 gram of fat in a single serving of 8 fluid ounces is called?
b) Low-fat milk
c) Nonfat milk
d) Reduced fat milk
Answer: c [Reason:] Non fat milk has at least 8.25% non fat milk solids. It also has no more than 0.5 grams of fat in a single serving.
7. What household cleaning agent has been found to cut odor in livestock manure by USDA-ARS scientists?
a) Baking soda
c) Dish soap
d) Window cleaner
Answer: b [Reason:] Borax is one of the most versatile cleaning ingredients. It cuts down odors in livestock manure.
8. The off-flavor that is seldom found except in pasteurized milk that has been stored too long is?
c) High acid
Answer: b [Reason:] Some farm milk samples have an unpleasant, dirty after taste. This problem often occurs during winter. Frequently it is an absorbed flavor, like silage. Usually cows breathe air with a barny odor and transfer it to the milk.Dust, dirt and manure can cause an unclean flavor of milk. Cows and their surroundings must be kept clean. Milking equipment that has not been properly cleaned and sanitized may be a factor.
9. According to the American Veterinary Medicine Association, what is the preferred method of dehorning cows?
a) Caustic paste
b) Cauterizing veins
Answer: d [Reason:] Disbudding involves the removal of horn-producing cells in calves less than two months of age. Disbudding by caustic paste or hot-iron destroys horn-producing cells in the horn bud.
10. What field vegetable can be a cheap replacement for soybean meal and corn grain?
a) Sugar beets
b) Sweet corn
c) Field peas
Answer: c [Reason:] field peas could be safely fed to high-producing dairy cows at a 15% inclusion rate, replacing soybean meal and corn grain. At this inclusion rate, no effects on milk yield or milk composition were observed.
11. How many years does it take for a dairy farm to fully transition to become certified organic?
Answer: b [Reason:] Organic dairy is a fast-growing sector in U.S. agriculture that provides substantial societal benefits in comparison to conventional, CAFO-based dairy farming. It takes about 3 years for a farms transition into an organic dairy farm.
12. What is the largest cost on most U.S. dairy farms?
d) Veterinary fees
Answer: a [Reason:] Feed is the largest cost of the dairy farm. Cows rely on large feed.
13. In cows, salmonellosis infections are most common in those that have calved within
a) 2 days
b) 10 days
c) 20 days
d) 50 days
Answer: b [Reason:] Salmonella spp. infection occurs when a susceptible animal ingests the bacteria. Dairy cattle ingest feed or water that has been contaminated with feces from animals shedding the organism. It is common ib those cows which have calved within 10 days.
14. The Standard of Identity for ice cream requires that it contain a minimum of ____ percent milk fat.
Answer: a [Reason:] Ice cream is a sweetened frozen food typically eaten as a snack or dessert. It is usually made from dairy products, such as milk and cream, and often combined with fruits or other ingredients and flavors. It should contain a minimum of 10% dairy fat.
15. Which of the following is an example of value-added agriculture?
a) A farm that markets an “Ozark brand” of cheese
b) Purchasing milk from a local producer
c) Using a custom heifer raiser
d) Drinking raw milk
Answer: a [Reason:] A farm that markets an “Ozark brand” of cheese is a example of value added agriculture.
1. What is the accepted standard length for a lactation record for dairy cattle?
a) 200 days
b) 305 days
c) 365 days
d) 100 days
Answer: b [Reason:] The standard period of 305 days has been chosen because this is approximately the normal lactation length of cows calving at intervals of 12 months. In tropical cattle, restricting the lactation records to 305 days would have less effect, as few cow’s milk for more than 305 days.
2. What can heart girth measurements of cows be used to estimate?
b) Milk production
c) Calving date
d) Body weight
Answer: d [Reason:] circumference of chest (heart girth) has been found to be the measurement most closely correlated with weight. The Dairy Cattle Research Branch2 of the U.S.D.A., reported a table of heart girth weight equivalents from which a measuring tape was prepared. This tape has been used extensively for more than 20 years in connection with D.H.I.A. work and for the estimation of body weight in dairy cattle generally.
3. In regards to pedigrees, what is a RHA?
a) Rolling Herd Average
b) Registered Herd Ancestry
c) Registered Holstein Ancestry
d) Registered Herd Average
Answer: c [Reason:] RHA is Registered Holstein Ancestry. Each animal in the herd book has a calculated, recorded and reported percentage “Registered Holstein Ancestry” or “RHA.”
4. Milk should be below what temperature before it is transferred to a milk truck?
a) 60 degrees F
b) 20 degrees F
c) 30 degrees F
d) 40 degrees F
Answer: d [Reason:] A certain temperature has to be met before the milk can be transferred to a milk truck. The milk should have at least attained the temperature of 40 degree F before being transferred to a milk truck.
5. When referring to milk test used at the processing plant, what is a DMC?
a) Direct Microscopic Smear test
b) Direct Microscopic Somatic test
c) Direct Micro Susceptibility test
d) Direct Measurement Control
Answer: a [Reason:] Direct Microscopic Clump Count (DMCC) for bacteria is not considered an official test for bacteria counts, it is used throughout the dairy industry to estimate bacteria colony forming units (i.e., “clumps”) in raw milk samples taken from the farm, the tank truck or the plant storage facility.
6. How much water can a lactating cow consume in one day?
a) 5 gallons
b) 15 gallons
c) 35 gallons
d) 25 gallons
Answer: d [Reason:] A milking dairy cow drinks about 25 gallons of water each day. During periods of heat stress water intake may double.
7. What percent of milk is water?
a) 82 percent
b) 87 percent
c) 93 percent
d) 50 percent
Answer: b [Reason:] Whole milk, as defined by the Milk Act, which regulates milk content, contains at least 3.25 percent milk fat. It also contain at least 8.25 percent protein, sugar (or carbohydrates) and vitamins and minerals. Otherwise, whole milk is made up of water-about 87 percent.
8. What units are used to measure energy?
Answer: a [Reason:] Calories are units of energy. Various definitions exist but fall into two broad categories. Gram calorie is defined as the approximate amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius at a pressure of one atmosphere.
9. What ration ingredients contain the highest concentration of energy?
Answer: b [Reason:] all the ration ingredients provide energy. However in the above mentioned option fat provides the highest concentration of energy.
10. When evaluation dairy rations what do the letters NE stand for?
a) Net Equivalence
b) Not Essential
c) Not Edible
d) Net Energy
Answer: d [Reason:] Energy results from the digestion of carbohydrates, protein, and fat. Net Energy Lactation (NEl) is the feed energy available for maintenance and milk production after digestive and metabolic losses.
11. When evaluating a dairy ration, what do the letters TDN stand for?
a) Total Diet Needed
b) Tested Digestible Nutrients
c) Total Digestible Nutrients
d) The Dairy Network
Answer: c [Reason:] Total digestible nutrients (TDN) are another method of expressing the energy content of feeds or the energy requirements of cattle. TDN is comparable to digestible energy. It has been in use longer than the net energy system and more values are available for feedstuffs.
12. What percent of dry matter in plants is made of carbohydrates?
a) 50 percent
b) 65 percent
c) 75 percent
d) 85 percent
Answer: c [Reason:] The dry matter of plant and animal material would be its solids, i.e. all its constituents excluding water. The dry matter of food would include carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants. Carbohydrates constitute about 75% of dry matter of plants.
13. Where are structural carbohydrates found in the plant?
a) In the cell wall
b) In the cell nucleus
c) In the cell organelles
d) In the cell membrane
Answer: a [Reason:] Polysaccharides are the most abundant carbohydrates. A polysaccharide molecule can contain thousands of glucose units. These highly complex carbohydrates include starches, cellulose, and glycogen. Starch is the usual form in which carbohydrates are stored as energy by plants in the cell wall.
14. What are structural carbohydrates made of?
a) Cellulose, fructose, and saccharin
b) Lignin, sucrose, and cellulose
c) Cellulose, hemicellulose, lactose
d) Cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin
Answer: d [Reason:] Structural carbohydrates constitute of Cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin.
15. What kinds of relationship do cattle and the microorganisms in their rumen share?
Answer: d [Reason:] The relationship between cows and their gut microorganisms is mutualistic. This relationship can also be called symbiotic.
1. The dairy product resulting from the addition of a creaming mixture (dressing) that
Contains not less than 4 percent milk fat and not more than 80 percent moisture?
d) Cottage cheese
Answer: d [Reason:] Cottage cheese is formed by the addition of a creaming mixture to the milk. The mixture should have 4% fat and <80% moisture.
2. Dairy Rations for lactating cows should be not be calculated based on:
a) Body Size
b) Milk Production
c) Stage of lactation
Answer: d [Reason:] Body Size, Milk Production and Stage of lactation all three factors contribute towards calculation of dairy rations of lactating cows.
3. Which of the following would be classified as a “Hard Cheese”?
b) Monterey Jack
Answer: c [Reason:] Cheddar would be classified as a “Hard Cheese”. Monterey Jack, cheddar and Brie all three are the example of soft cheese.
4. __________is a dairy product resulting from the culturing of a mixture of milk and cream products, with lactic acid producing bacteria. The product contains not less than 3.25 percent milk fat and 8.25 percent solids-not-fat.
a) Ice cream
c) Cottage cheese
Answer: b [Reason:] Yogurt is a cultured dairy product. It has 3.25% fat and 8.25 SNF. Preparation of yogurt involves addition of LAB (Lactic acid bacteria) to milk.
5. Of the 14 cheese varieties, which has a tangy peppery flavor, is crumbly and pasty, has a white interior with veins of mold that are marbled or streaked?
Answer: d [Reason:] Blue cheese is characterized by all the above characteristics mentioned in the question.
6. Of the listed below products, which contains no dairy ingredients?
Answer: d [Reason:] Gelato, sherbet, and custard all three have dairy ingredients in them. Sorbet on the other hand lacks any dairy ingredient in it.
7. As it comes from a cow, the solids portion of milk contains approximately 3.7 percent fat and ____ percent solids-not-fat.
Answer: c [Reason:] Solids portion of milk contains 9% SNF.
8. Milk contains 87 % water and the rest is solids and fats. Which of the following is not included as milk solid?
d) Milk Fat
Answer: b [Reason:] Protein, Carbohydrate and Milk Fat all three are milk solids.
9. The part of the mammary gland where milk is produced is called:
b) Teat Cistern
Answer: d [Reason:] Alveolus is the mammary gland where milk is produced. All the rest are organs and not glands.
10. The heritability of the traits for milk production is:
Answer: b [Reason:] Milk production is 25% dependent of heritability of traits.
11. The Primary Milk carbohydrate is:
Answer: d [Reason:] Lactose is the primary Milk carbohydrate. Sucrose is the primary carbohydrate of sugar.
12. The primary Protein in Milk is:
Answer: a [Reason:] Casein is the primary Milk Protein. Tryptophan, Lysine, and Arginine are secondary proteins present in milk.
13.The major component in milk is _______
Answer: b [Reason:] The major component in milk is Water. It constitutes about 83% of milk and 17% is rest.
1. What is the father of a calf called?
Answer: a [Reason:] The mature male of the species is called a ‘bull’. It is the father of calf.
2. What are the tiny cells in a cows udder called?
Answer: a [Reason:] An alveolus is composed of a single layer of epithelial cells surrounding a lumen, another section of lactating mammary tissue from a cow. They are tiny cells in cow udder.
3. What is another name for Vitamin C?
a) tartaric acid
b) ascorbic acid
d) malic acid
Answer: b [Reason:] Vitamin C is also known as ascorbic acid. It is present in citrus fruits.
4. Which direction should the show person walk in relation to the cow?
Answer: c [Reason:] The person should walk in a clockwise direction in the ring. It is advised to walk backwards as compared to cow during the show.
5. What is the weight of a newborn calf?
a) 70-100 pounds
b) 120 pounds
c) 50-60 pounds
d) 20 pounds
Answer: a [Reason:] New born calf weighs around 70-100 pounds. Weight is dependent on nutrition during pregnancy and breed etc.
6. The Ayrshire breed of dairy cow first came from what country?
b) New Zealand
Answer: d [Reason:] The Ayrshire breed is originally from County Ayr, Scotland, before 1800. The adult Ayrshire cow weighs more than 450 to 600 kilograms (990–1,320 lb).
7. The choice of animals to be parents of each new generation. Involves culling cows and selecting bulls is called?
Answer: b [Reason:] Classification is the practice which involves culling and selection of bulls. It helps in choice of parents of each new generation.
8. What hormone is important in the milking process?
d) Parathyroid hormone
Answer: a [Reason:] Before milking, less than 20% of the milk yielded by dairy cows is stored within the cistern, where it is immediately available for removal. Most of the milk is available for the milking machine only after milk ejection, which occurs in response to tactile teat stimulation and oxytocin release.
9. The lack of which vitamin causes rickets?
a) vitamin A
b) Vitamin E
c) Vitamin D
d) Vitamin K
Answer: c [Reason:] Lack of vitamin D results in reduced absorption of calcium and phosphorus. Difficulty maintaining proper calcium and phosphorus levels in bones can cause rickets. Symptoms include delayed growth, bow legs, weakness and pain in the spine, pelvis and legs.
10. When showing calves and heifers where should the hind foot nearest the judge be when the animal is posed?
a) one half step back
b) no space
c) 2 steps back
d) 3 steps back
Answer: a [Reason:] When posing and showing a dairy animal, stay on the animal’s left side and stand .For cows and springing heifers, the hind leg nearest the judge should be. Hind foot must be one and half foot back.
11. What are the two methods calves can acquire protection against disease?
I. Passive immunity from absorption of antibodies found in first milk colostrums
II. active immunity in which the calf manufactures its own antibodies
a) I only
c) II only
d) I and II
Answer: d [Reason:] There are two ways to acquire immunity i.e. active immunity and passive immunity. Passive immunity from absorption of antibodies found in first milk colostrums, active immunity in which the calf manufactures its own antibodies.
12. What is a calf over six months of age called?
Answer: c [Reason:] Heifer is a young cow over one year old that has not produced a calf. Heifers are female cows that have not yet given birth to a calf. Farmers can raise heifers for dairy or for meat.
13. When considering sire selection, what does repeatability measure?
a) accuracy of sire’s Predicted Difference(P.D.)
Answer: a [Reason:] Accuracy of sire’s PD plays an important role during sire selection. It measures repeatability.
14. What management practice helps prevent navel ill in newborn calves?
a) dipping foot
b) dipping navel in iodine
c) ethylene treatment
Answer: b [Reason:] – Consistent use of navel dip for newborn heifer calves using a recommended protocol. This practice helps preventing infection in the newborn.
15. What is the condition called which results from lack of Vitamin E in the diet?
a) black muscle disease
b) grey muscle disease
c) white muscle disease
d) brown muscle disease
Answer: c [Reason:] Nutritional muscular dystrophy (NMD) or white muscle disease is caused by a deficiency of vitamin E, selenium.
1. Homogenization reduces the size of fat globules to which size?
a) Less than 2µ
b) Less than 3µ
c) Less than 4µ
d) Less than 5µ
Answer: a [Reason:] Homogenization leads to reduction of fat globule size to < 2 µ prevents formation of cream layer and increases the surface area of the fat above 6 times.
2. Which of the following is the effect of homogenization on appearance of milk?
a) Dusty appearance
b) Yellowish appearance
c) Whitish appearance
d) Blackish appearance
Answer: c [Reason:] Homogenization of milk increases its whitening power due to an increase in the number and surface area of the fat globules. Adsorption of casein micelles and serum proteins on newly created fat globules surface increases scattering of light thereby causing whiter appearance.
3. Homogenization has which of the following effects on physiology of nutrition of milk?
a) Improved digestibility
b) Reduced digestibility
Answer: a [Reason:] Homogenization has been reported to improve the digestibility of milk due to increase in the number and surface area of the fat globules.
4. Which of the following does not denotes the flavor profile of homogenized milk?
a) Richer than unhomogenized milk
b) Smoother than unhomogenized milk
c) Creamier than unhomogenized milk
Answer: d [Reason:] Homogenized milk has a uniform flavor throughout. Homogenized milk tastes richer, smoother and creamier than unhomogenized milk due to an increase in the surface area of the fat globules which are uniformly distributed in milk.
5. Homogenized milk show sensitivity to which enzyme?
Answer: d [Reason:] Homogenized milk is more susceptible to enzyme activities, especially lipase action, than unhomogenized milk. Lipase can cause rancidity rapidly in homogenized raw milk.
6. Which of the following packaging material should be used in order to avoid off flavor formation in homogenized milk?
a) Transparent Glass bottles
b) Transparent bags
c) Opaque containers
d) Transparent containers
Answer: c [Reason:] Homogenized milk is more susceptible to oxidized flavors caused by natural or artificial light than unhomogenized milk. To prevent development of off-flavors, homogenized milk must be packaged in opaque containers, such as cartons, plastic containers or colored bottles.
7. Storage of homogenized milk may lead to which of the following development?
a) Sediment development
b) Fat development
c) Protein development
d) Cream layer development
Answer: a [Reason:] Homogenized milk may develop dark sediment at the bottom of the container after standing for 24 h. Sedimentation in homogenized milk is due to settling of cells, foreign matter and casein particles. In unhomogenized milk, these particles are usually held by the fat globules.
8. In order to prevent sedimentation in homogenized milk which of the following measure prove effective?
c) Concentration of milk
d) Filtration/clarification of milk prior to homogenization
Answer: d [Reason:] To prevent the sediment formation, homogenized milk must be filtered or clarified, preferably before homogenization.
9. The bacterial counts of milk will _______ after homogenization.
c) Remain same
d) First increase then decrease
Answer: a [Reason:] There will be an apparent increase in bacterial count after homogenization. Increase is due to the break-up of clumps and colonies of organisms.
10. The milk after homogenization will not be suitable for production of semi-hard or hard cheeses due to which of the following reasons?
a) Too soft coagulum
b) Too hard coagulum
c) Off flavor
d) Bitter taste
Answer: a [Reason:] The milk will not be suitable for production of semi-hard or hard cheeses. This is because the coagulum will be too soft and difficult to dewater.
11. Homogenization in which the main body of skim milk is not homogenized, but only the cream together with a small proportion of skim milk is homogenized is called?
a) Complete homogenization
b) Partial homogenization
c) Concentrate homogenization
d) Pasteurized homogenization
Answer: b [Reason:] Partial homogenization, this form of homogenization is mainly applied to pasteurized market milk. The basic reason is to reduce operating costs. Total power consumption is cut by some 65% because of the smaller volume passing through the homogenizer.
12. Main function of first stage of homogenization is?
a) Fat globule reduction
b) Separation of clusters of fat into individual fat molecules
d) Off flavor development
Answer: a [Reason:] Most of the fat globule reduction takes place in the first stage. There is a tendency for clumping or clustering of the reduced fat globules after the first stage.
13. Main function of Second stage of homogenization is?
a) Fat globule reduction
b) Separation of clusters of fat into individual fat molecules
d) Off flavor development
Answer: b [Reason:] There is a tendency for clumping or clustering of the reduced fat globules after the first stage. The second stage valve permits the separation of those clusters into individual fat globules.
14. Lack of homogenization leads to which of the following developments?
a) Cream layer development
b) Protein development
c) Astringency development
d) Increased fat content
Answer: a [Reason:] Milk is an oil-in-water emulsion, with the fat globules dispersed in a continuous skim milk phase. In raw milk left to stand, the fat would rise and form a cream layer.
15. Which of the following factors does not contribute to enhanced stability of homogenized milk?
a) Decrease in the mean diameter of the fat globules
b) Decrease in the size distribution of the fat globules
c) Increase in density of the globules
d) Decrease in density of the globules
Answer: d [Reason:] Three factors contribute to this enhanced stability of homogenized milk: a decrease in the mean diameter of the fat globules, a decrease in the size distribution of the fat globules, and an increase in density of the globules owing to the adsorption of a protein membrane.