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Multiple choice question for engineering

Set 1

1. Which of the following is not true about secondary protein structure?
a) The hydrophilic/hydrophobic character of amino acid residues is important to secondary structure.
b) The ability of peptide bonds to form intramolecular hydrogen bonds is important to secondary structure.
c) The alpha helix, beta pleated sheet and beta turns are examples of protein secondary structure.
d) The steric influence of amino acid residues is important to secondary structure.

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The hydrophilic / hydrophobic character of amino acid residues is important to protein tertiary structure rather than to secondary structure. In secondary structure, it is the steric size of the residues that is important and residues are positioned to minimize interactions between each other and the peptide chain.

2. A structure that has hydrogen bonds between polypeptide chains arranged side by side is
a) Primary structure
b) α-helix
c) β-pleated sheets
d) Tertiary structure

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] A structure that has hydrogen bonds between polypeptide chains arranged side by side is β-pleated sheets.

3. The enzyme of E.coli is a nuclease that initiates the repair of double stranded DNA breaks by homologous recombination
a) DNA glycosylase
b) DNA ligase
c) DNA polymerase
d) RNA polymerase

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] DNA glycosylase catalyzes the first step of base excision repair in DNA.

4. Which of the statements is false about multiple sequence alignment?
a) Both protein and nucleic acid secondary structures can be used
b) More useful in RNA
c) These alignments can be made more accurate by the inclusion of secondary structure information
d) A significant increase in accuracy

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Less useful in RNA. This is because base pairing is highly conserved than sequence.

5. Which of the following serves as bactericidal agent?
a) Ribonuclease
b) Lysozyme
c) Cytochrome c
d) Myoglobin

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Lysozyme can lyse, or degrade, bacterial cell walls, so it serves as bactericidal agent.

6. Which of the following enzyme is secreted by the pancreas?
a) Ribonuclease
b) Lysozyme
c) Cytochrome c
d) Myoglobin

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Ribonuclease is secreted by the pancreas into small intestine, where it catalyzes the hydrolysis of certain bonds in ribonucleic acids present in the ingested food.

7. Which of the following is false?
a) Lysozyme has S-S linkage
b) Ribonuclease has S-S linkage
c) Heme group in cytochrome c is covalently linked to the protein on two sides
d) Ribonuclease has SH-SH linkage

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Lysozyme and ribonuclease have disulfide linkages.

8. Which of the following is first determined as oligomer?
a) Myoglobin
b) Collagen
c) Keratin
d) Hemoglobin

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Hemoglobin contains four polypeptide chains and four heme prosthetic groups in which iron atoms are present in Fe+2 state.

9. Which of the following is abundantly found in collagen?
a) Glycine
b) Serine
c) Alanine
d) Tryptophan

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Each three amino acids of the collagen peptide chain is a glycine. It is thus an abundant amino acid that is important for collagen structure.

10. Which of the following are important for white blood cell recognition?
a) Glycosamineglycans
b) Proteoglycans
c) Gycoproteins
d) Glycolipids

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Especially in mammals glycoproteins are essential for white blood cell recognition.

Set 2

1. Which of the following is a hypertonic solution?
a) Oceans
b) Freshwater habitats
c) 0.45% sodium chloride
d) Red blood cells placed in fresh water

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The sea water or oceans are hypertonic to the extracellular fluid of many of the marine organisms. These marine organisms overcome the problem of hyper tonicity by expelling the salt water continuously.

2. If pH of solution of NaOH is 12.0 the pH of H2 SO4 solution of same molarity will be
a) 2.0
b) 12.0
c) 1.7
d) 10.0387

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] pH = 12 then pOH = 2 [OH] = 10-2 Molarity of NaOH = 10-2 For H2 SO4, molarity = 10-2 [H+] = 2 × 10-2 pH = 2 – log2 = 1.7.

3. 1M NaCl and 1M HCl are present in an aqueous solution. The solution is
a) Not a buffer solution with pH < 7
b) Not a buffer solution with pH > 7
c) A buffer solution with pH < 7
d) A buffer solution with pH > 7

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] It is a neutral solution and its pH = 7.

4. What does it mean when we say that water acts as a “heat buffer”?
a) It keeps the temperature of an organism relatively constant as the temperature of the surroundings fluctuates.
b) It increases the temperature of an organism as the temperature of the surroundings increases
c) It decreases the temperature of an organism as the temperature of the surroundings increases
d) It increases the temperature of an organism as the temperature of the surroundings decreases

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Water has a high specific heat capacity, it is hard to increase or decrease the water temperature which requires a lot of heat energy and therefore water acts as a heat buffer.

5. What trend does the reactivity of group II elements follow with water?
a) Increases down the group
b) Decreases down the group
c) Does not follow any particular trend
d) No reaction

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] As we descend down the group, losing of electrons from the outer orbit of an atom becomes easy.

6. Which of the following is not the classified form of conjugated proteins?
a) Lipoproteins
b) Glycoproteins
c) Metalloproteins
d) Complete proteins

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] On the basis of the chemical nature of their prosthetic groups conjugated proteins are classified into lipoproteins, glycoproteins and metalloproteins.

7. Tertiary conformation of proteins is maintained by 3 types of bonds namely ionic, hydrogen and
a) Sulfide
b) Disulfide
c) Covalent
d) Peptide

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Ionic interactions, hydrogen and disulfide linkages stabilizes tertiary structure of a protein.

8. Which of the following is true?
a) The disulfide bridges formed by reduction of the sulfhydryl groups on cysteine stabilizes protein tertiary structure
b) The disulfide bridges formed by oxidation of the sulfhydryl groups on cysteine destabilizes protein tertiary structure
c) The disulfide bridges formed by oxidation of the sulfhydryl groups on cysteine stabilizes protein tertiary structure
d) The disulfide bridges formed by reduction of the sulfhydryl groups on cysteine destabilizes protein tertiary structure

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The disulfide bridge formed by oxidation of the sulfhydryl groups on cysteine stabilizes protein tertiary structure, allowing different parts of the protein chain to be held together covalently.

9. In 3° structure of proteins, folding and shaping is done by
a) Hydrophobic interactions
b) Polar interactions
c) Hydrogen bonding
d) None of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Globular proteins have tertiary structure with hydrophobic amino acid residues and a surface region of hydrophilic residues; these hydrophobic interactions are responsible for the folding and shaping of 3° structure of proteins.

10. Which of the following does not affect the stability of a α-helix?
a) Electrostatic repulsion
b) Bulkiness
c) Interaction between R groups spaced three residues apart
d) Occurrence of alanine and glycine residues

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The occurrence of Proline and Glycine residues affect the stability of a α-helix.

Set 3

1. Which of the following is NOT a Catalan number?
a) 1
b) 5
c) 14
d) 43

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Catalan numbers are given by: (2n!)/((n+1)!n!). For n = 0, we get C0 = 1. For n = 3, we get C3 = 5. For n = 4, we get C4 = 14. For n = 5, we get C3 = 42.

2. Which of the following numbers is the 6th Catalan number?
a) 14
b) 429
c) 132
d) None of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Catalan numbers are given by: (2n!)/((n+1)!n!). First Catalan number is given by n = 0. So the 6th Catalan number will be given by n = 5, which is 42.

3. Which of the following is/are applications of Catalan numbers?
a) Counting the number of Dyck words
b) Counting the number of expressions containing n pairs of parenthesis
c) Counting the number of ways in which a convex polygon can be cut into triangles by connecting vertices with straight lines
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Catalan numbers are used in all of the above applications.

4. Which of the following methods can be used to find the nth Catalan number?
a) Recursion
b) Binomial coefficients
c) Dynamic programming
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] All of the mentioned methods can be used to find the nth Catalan number.

5. The recursive formula for Catalan number is given by Cn = ∑Ci*C(n-i).
Consider the following dynamic programming implementation for Catalan numbers:

#include<stdio.h>
int cat_number(int n)
{
     int i,j,arr[n],k;
     arr[0] = 1;
     for(i = 1; i < n; i++)
     {
         arr[i] = 0;
         for(j = 0,k = i - 1; j < i; j++,k--)
           ______________________;
     }
     return arr[n-1];
 
}
int main()
{
     int ans, n = 8;
     ans = cat_number(n);
     printf("%dn",ans);
     return 0;
}

Which of the following lines completes the above code?
a) arr[i] = arr[j] * arr[k];
b) arr[j] += arr[i] * arr[k];
c) arr[i] += arr[j] * arr[k].
d) arr[j] = arr[i] * arr[k];

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The line arr[i] += arr[j] * arr[k] reflects the recursive formula Cn = ∑Ci*C(n-i).

6. Which of the following implementations of Catalan numbers has the smallest time complexity?
a) Dynamic programming
b) Binomial coefficients
c) Recursion
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The time complexities are as follows: Dynamic programming: O(n2) Recursion: Exponential Binomial coefficients: O(n)

7. What is the output of the following code?

a) 42
b) 132
c) 429
d) 1430

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The program prints the 8th Catalan number, which is 429.

8. Which of the following implementations of Catalan numbers has the largest space complexity(Don’t consider the stack space)?
a) Dynamic programming
b) Binomial coefficients
c) Recursion
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The space complexities are as follows: Dynamic programming: O(n) Recursion: O(1) Binomial coefficients: O(1)

9. What will be the value stored in arr[5] when the following code is executed?

a) 14
b) 42
c) 132
d) 429

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The 6th Catalan number will be stored in arr[5], which is 42.

10. Which of the following errors will occur when the below code is executed?

a) Segmentation fault
b) Array size too large
c) Integer value out of range
d) None of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The 100th Catalan number is too large to be stored in an integer. So, the error produced will be integer value out of range.(It will be a logical error and the compiler wont show it.)

Set 4

1. The Knapsack problem is an example of ____________
a) Greedy algorithm
b) 2D dynamic programming
c) 1D dynamic programming
d) Divide and conquer

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Knapsack problem is an example of 2D dynamic programming.

2. Which of the following methods can be used to solve the Knapsack problem?
a) Brute force algorithm
b) Recursion
c) Dynamic programming
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] All of the mentioned techniques can be used to solve the Knapsack problem.

3. You are given a knapsack that can carry a maximum weight of 60. There are 4 items with weights {20, 30, 40, 70} and values {70, 80, 90, 200}. What is the maximum value of the items you can carry using the knapsack?
a) 160
b) 200
c) 170
d) 90

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The maximum value you can get is 160. This can be achieved by choosing the items 1 and 3 that have a total weight of 60.

4. Which of the following problems is equivalent to the 0-1 Knapsack problem?
a) You are given a bag that can carry a maximum weight of W. You are given N items which have a weight of {w1, w2, w3,…., wn} and a value of {v1, v2, v3,…., vn}. You can break the items into smaller pieces. Choose the items in such a way that you get the maximum value.
b) You are studying for an exam and you have to study N questions. The questions take {t1, t2, t3,…., tn} time(in hours) and carry {m1, m2, m3,…., mn} marks. You can study for a maximum of T hours. You can either study a question or leave it. Choose the questions in such a way that your score is maximized.
c) You are given infinite coins of denominations {v1, v2, v3,….., vn} and a sum S. You have to find the minimum number of coins required to get the sum S.
d) None of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] In this case, questions are used instead of items. Each question has a score which is same as each item having a value. Also, each question takes a time t which is same as each item having a weight w. You have to maximize the score in time T which is same as maximizing the value using a bag of weight W.

5. What is the time complexity of the brute force algorithm used to solve the Knapsack problem?
a) O(n)
b) O(n!)
c) O(2n)
d) O(n3)

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] In the brute force algorithm all the subsets of the items are found and the value of each subset is calculated. The subset of items with the maximum value and a weight less than equal to the maximum allowed weight gives the answer. The time taken to calculate all the subsets is O(2n).

6. The 0-1 Knapsack problem can be solved using Greedy algorithm.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The Knapsack problem cannot be solved using the greedy algorithm.

7. Consider the following dynamic programming implementation of the Knapsack problem:

#include<stdio.h>
int find_max(int a, int b)
{
if(a > b)
return a;
return b;
}
int knapsack(int W, int *wt, int *val,int n)
{
int ans[n + 1][W + 1];
int itm,w;
for(itm = 0; itm <= n; itm++)
ans[itm][0] = 0;
for(w = 0;w <= W; w++)
ans[0][w] = 0;
for(itm = 1; itm <= n; itm++)
{
for(w = 1; w <= W; w++)
{
if(wt[itm - 1] <= w)
ans[itm][w] = ______________;
else
ans[itm][w] = ans[itm - 1][w];
}
}
return ans[n][W];
}
int main()
{
int w[] = {10,20,30}, v[] = {60, 100, 120}, W = 50;
int ans = knapsack(W, w, v, 3);
printf("%d",ans);
return 0;
}

Which of the following lines completes the above code?
a) find_max(ans[itm – 1][w – wt[itm – 1]] + val[itm – 1], ans[itm – 1][w])
b) find_max(ans[itm – 1][w – wt[itm – 1]], ans[itm – 1][w])
c) ans[itm][w] = ans[itm – 1][w];
d) none of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] find_max(ans[itm – 1][w – wt[itm – 1]] + val[itm – 1], ans[itm – 1][w]) completes the above code.

8. What is the time complexity of the above dynamic programming implementation of the Knapsack problem with n items and a maximum weight of W?
a) O(n)
b) O(n + w)
c) O(nW)
d) O(n2)

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The time complexity of the above dynamic programming implementation of the Knapsack problem is O(nW).

9. What is the space complexity of the above dynamic programming implementation of the Knapsack problem?
a) O(n)
b) O(n + w)
c) O(nW)
d) O(n2)

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The space complexity of the above dynamic programming implementation of the Knapsack problem is O(nW).

10. What is the output of the following code?

#include<stdio.h>
int find_max(int a, int b)
{
if(a > b)
return a;
return b;
}
int knapsack(int W, int *wt, int *val,int n)
{
int ans[n + 1][W + 1];
int itm,w;
for(itm = 0; itm <= n; itm++)
ans[itm][0] = 0;
for(w = 0;w <= W; w++)
ans[0][w] = 0;
for(itm = 1; itm <= n; itm++)
{
for(w = 1; w <= W; w++)
{
if(wt[itm - 1] <= w)
ans[itm][w] = find_max(ans[itm - 1][w - wt[itm - 1]] + val[itm - 1], ans[itm - 1][w]);
else
ans[itm][w] = ans[itm - 1][w];
}
}
return ans[n][W];
}
int main()
{
int w[] = {10,20,30}, v[] = {60, 100, 120}, W = 50;
int ans = knapsack(W, w, v, 3);
printf("%d",ans);
return 0;
}

a) 120
b) 100
c) 180
d) 220

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The output of the above code is 220.

Set 5

1. Which of these best describes an array?
a) A data structure that shows a hierarchical behavior
b) Container of objects of similar types
c) Container of objects of mixed types
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Array contains elements only of the same type.

2. How do you initialize an array in C?
a) int arr[3] = (1,2,3);
b) int arr(3) = {1,2,3};
c) int arr[3] = {1,2,3};
d) int arr(3) = (1,2,3);

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] This is the syntax to initialize an array in C.

3. How do you instantiate an array in Java?
a) int arr[] = new int(3);
b) int arr[];
c) int arr[] = new int[3];
d) int arr() = new int(3);

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Note that option b is declaration whereas option c is to instantiate an array.

4. Which of the following is a correct way to declare a multidimensional array in Java?
a) int[][] arr;
b) int arr[][];
c) int []arr[];
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] All the options are syntactically correct.

5. What is the output of the following piece of code?

public class array
{
public static void main(String args[])
{
int []arr = {1,2,3,4,5};
System.out.println(arr[2]);
System.out.println(arr[4]);
}
}

a) 3 and 5
b) 5 and 3
c) 2 and 4
d) 4 and 2

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Array indexing starts from 0.

6. What is the output of the following piece of code?

public class array
{
public static void main(String args[])
{
int []arr = {1,2,3,4,5};
System.out.println(arr[5]);
}
}

a) 4
b) 5
c) ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
d) InavlidInputException

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Trying to access an element beyond the limits of an array gives ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException.

7. When does the ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException occur?
a) Compile-time
b) Run-time
c) Not an error
d) None of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException is a run-time exception and the compilation is error-free.

8. Which of the following concepts make extensive use of arrays?
a) Binary trees
b) Scheduling of processes
c) Caching
d) Spatial locality

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Whenever a particular memory location is referred, it is likely that the locations nearby are also referred, arrays are stored as contigous blocks in memory, so if you want to access array elements, spatial locality makes it to access quickly.

9. What are the advantages of arrays?
a) Easier to store elements of same data type
b) Used to implement other data structures like stack and queue
c) Convenient way to represent matrices as a 2D array
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Arrays are simple to implement when it comes to matrices of fixed size and type, or to implement other data structures.

10. What are the disadvantages of arrays?
a) We must know before hand how many elements will be there in the array
b) There are chances of wastage of memory space if elements inserted in an array are lesser than than the allocated size
c) Insertion and deletion becomes tedious
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Arrays are of fixed size, hence during the compile time we should know its size and type, since arrays are stored in contigous locations, insertion and deletion becomes time consuming.

11. Assuming int is of 4bytes, what is the size of int arr[15];?
a) 15
b) 19
c) 11
d) 60

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Since there are 15 int elements and each int is of 4bytes, we get 15*4 = 60bytes.