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# Multiple choice question for engineering

## Set 1

1. The velocity vector in a fluid is given V=5x4+3y2+2z( in metre/sec). What is the acceleration of it at point (1,3,4) ?
a) 40 m/s2
b) 20 m/s2
c) 60 m/s2
d) 80 m/s2

Answer: a [Reason:] By differentiating V=5x42+2z, the acceleration obtained is V=20x3+6y+2. on putting the coordinates, the acceleration obtained is 40 m/s2.

2. Determine the third velocity component such that continuity equation is satisfied if two components are u=2y2, w=2xyz.
a) -2xy+x2y+f(y,z)
b) 4xy-x2y+f(y,z)
c) -4xy-x2y+f(y,z)
d) -2xy-x2y+f(y,z)

Answer: c [Reason:] The continuity equation for incompressible is du/dx+dv/dy+dw/dz = 0. Here du/dx=0 and w=2xy. On solving by integrating, we get v = -4xy-x2y+f(y,z).

3. Determine the third velocity component such that continuity equation is satisfied if two components are u=x2+y2+z2, v=xy2 – yz2 + xy
a) -3xz-2xyz+z2/3+f(y,z)
b) -3xz+2xyz+z3/3+f(y,z)
c) -3xz-2xyz+z3/3+f(x,z)
d) -3xz-2xyz+z3/3+f(y,z)

Answer: d [Reason:] The continuity equation for incompressible is du/dx+dv/dy+dw/dz = 0. Here du/dx=2x and v=2xy-z2 On solving by integrating, we get w = -3xz-2xyz+z3/3+f(y,z),

4. A fluid flow field is given by
V=x2yi+y2z-(2xyz+yz)k
Calculate it’s acceleration at the point (1,3,5)
a) 28i-3j+125k
b) 28i-3j-125k
c) 28i+3j+125k
d) None of the mentioned

Answer: d [Reason:] First we have to check whether it satisfies the continuity equation, The continuity equation for incompressible is du/dx+dv/dy+dw/dz = 0. (here d/dx, d/dy, d/z represent partial derivative) The given equation doesn’t satisfy the continuity equation.

5. A fluid flow field is given by
V=y2xi+z2x-(2xyz+yz)k
Calculate it’s acceleration at the point (2,4,4)
a) 36i-27j+100k
b) 36i-27j-100k
c) 28i+27j+100k
d) 36ne of the mentioned

Answer: d [Reason:] First we have to check whether it satisfies the continuity equation, The continuity equation for incompressible is du/dx+dv/dy+dw/dz = 0. (here d/dx, d/dy, d/z represent partial derivative) The given equation doesn’t satisfy the continuity equation.

6. Convective acceleration cannot be found if the fluid flow equation is not satisfying
the continuity equation but local acceleration can be found.
a) True
b) False

Answer: b [Reason:] Convective acceleration and local acceleration cannot be found if the fluid flow equation is not satisfying the continuity equation.

7. Local acceleration has constant value for a steady flow.
a) True
b) False

Answer: b [Reason:] Local acceleration is zero for a steady flow.

8. Total acceleration has the same value as convective acceleration in case of unsteady flow.
a) True
b) False

Answer: b [Reason:] Total acceleration has the same value as convective acceleration in case of steady flow as local acceleration value becomes zero.

9. Which equation must be perfunctorily satisfied while dealing with fluid flow problems?
a) Newton’s second law
b) Newton’s third law
c) Law of conservation of momentum
d) Continuity equation

Answer: d [Reason:] Continuity equation must be perfunctorily satisfied while dealing with fluid flow problems.

10. Convective acceleration is defined as the rate of change of velocity due to change of velocity with respect to time.
a) True
b) False

Answer: b [Reason:] Convective acceleration is defined as the rate of change of velocity due to change of position of fluid particles.

## Set 2

1. Water flows between two plates of which the upper one is stationary and the lower one is moving with a velocity V. What will be the velocity of the fluid in contact with the upper plate?
a) V
b) N ⁄ 2
c) 2V
d) 0

Answer: d [Reason:] According to the No-Slip condition, the relative velocity between the plate and the fluid in contact with it must be zero. Thus, the velocity of the fluid in contact with the upper plate is 0 and that with the lower plate is V.

2. The viscous force the relative motion between the adjacent layers of a fluid in motion.
Which one of the flowing fits best in the sentence?
a) opposes
b) never affects
c) facilitates
d) may effect under certain conditions

Answer: a [Reason:] Viscosity is the internal friction of a fluid in motion. It is the property by the virtue of which the relative motion between two adjacent fluid layers is opposed.

3. The viscosity of a fluid in motion is 1 Poise. What will be it’s viscosity (in Poise) when the fluid is at rest?
a) 0
b) 0.5
c) 1
d) 2

Answer: c [Reason:] Viscosity is the property of a fluid and is constant for a given fluid under given conditions, irrespective of the fact whether the fluid is at rest or in motion.

4. Which of the following correctly states how the viscosities of a liquid and a gas will change with temperature?
a) Viscosity increases with the increase in temperature of a liquid and decreases with the increase in temperature of a gas
b) Viscosity increases with the increase in temperature of a liquid and increases with the increase in temperature of a gas
c) Viscosity decreases with the increase in temperature of a liquid and decreases with the increase in temperature of a gas
d) Viscosity decreases with the increase in temperature of a liquid and increases with the increase in temperature of a gas

Answer: a [Reason:] Viscosity of a liquid is due to the cohesion between it’s molecules. With the increase in temperature of a liquid, cohesion increases, leading to the rise in viscosity. Viscosity of a gas is due to the momentum transfer between it’s molecules. With the increase in the temperature of a liquid, molecular motion increases, leading to the fall in viscosity.

5. Which one of the following is not a unit of dynamic viscosity?
a) Pa-s
b) N-s/m2
c) Poise
d) Stokes

Answer: d [Reason:] where F= viscous force, A= area, du ⁄ dx = velocity gradient, μ = co-effcient of viscosity. Therefore, SI unit of μ is N-s/m2 = Pa-s and CGS unit of μ is dyne-s/cm2. 1 Poise= 1 dyne-s/cm2 and 1 Stokes= 1 cm2/s. Thus, Stokes is not an unit of μ, rather it is a unit of kinematic viscosity υ.

6. Which of the following is a unit of dynamic viscosity?
a) [M1 L1 T-1].
b) [M1 L-1 T-1].
c) [M1 L-2 T-2].
d) [M1 L-2 T-2].

Answer: b [Reason:] where F= viscous force, A= area, du ⁄ dx = velocity gradient, μ = co-effcient of viscosity. Therefore,  7. Which one of the following is the CGS unit of dynamic viscosity?
a) Stokes
b) Pa-s
c) m2/s
d) Poise

Answer: d [Reason:] where F= viscous force, A= area, du ⁄ dx = velocity gradient, μ = co-effcient of viscosity. Therefore, CGS unit of μ is = dyne-s/cm2. 1 Poise= 1 dyne-s/cm2 and 1 Stokes= 1 cm2/s. Thus, the CGS unit of μ will be Poise. Stokes is the CGS unit of kinematic viscosity.

8. The dynamic viscosity of a fluid is 1 Poise. What should one multiply to it to get the answer in N-s/m2?
a) 0.1
b) 1
c) 10
d) 100

Answer: a [Reason:] 1 Poise = 1 dyne-s/cm2 9. Which of the following is a unit of kinematic viscosity?
a) Stokes
b) Pa-s
c) m2=s
d) Poise

Answer: a [Reason:] ν = μ/ρ, where ν = kinematic viscosity, μ = dynamic viscosity and ρ = density of the fluid. Unit of μ is dyne-s/cm2 and that of ρ is kg/cm3. Thus, the unit of ν is cm2/s = Stokes Poise is the unit of dynamic viscosity. 1 Poise = 1 dyne-s/cm2 10. Which of the following is the dimension of kinematic viscosity?
a) [L1 T-1].
b) [L1 T-2].
c) [L2 T-1].
d) [L2 T-2].

Answer: c [Reason:] ν = μ/ρ, where ν = kinematic viscosity, μ = dynamic viscosity and ρ = density of the fluid. 11. The kinematic viscosity of a fluid is 0.1 Stokes. What will be the value is m2/s?
a) 10-2
b) 10-3
c) 10-4
d) 10-5

Answer: d [Reason:] 1Stokes = 1cm2/s = 10-4m2/s Therefore, 0.1Stokes = 10-1cm2/s = 10-5m2/s.

12. The shear stress at a point in a liquid is found to be 0.03 N/m2. The velocity gradient at the point is 0.15 s-1. What will be it’s viscosity (in Poise)?
a) 20
b) 2
c) 0.2
d) 0.5

Answer: b [Reason:] where F= viscous force, A= area, du ⁄ dx = velocity gradient, μ = co-effcient of viscosity. Therefore, 13. The space between two plates (20cm*20cm*1cm), 1 cm apart, is filled with a liquid of viscosity 1 Poise. The upper plate is dragged to the right with a force of 5N keeping the lower plate stationary. What will be the velocity in m/s of flow at a point 0.5 cm below the lower surface of the upper plate if linear velocity profile is assumed for the flow?
a) 1.25
b) 2.5
c) 12.5
d) 0.25

Answer: c [Reason:] where Fν = viscous force, A = area, du ⁄ dx = velocity gradient, μ = co-effcient of viscosity. If linear velocity profile is assumed, du⁄dx = U/x, where U = velocity of the upper plate and x = distance between the two plates. Now, the viscous force Fv = -F= -5N. Substituting all the values in the equation, U becomes 12.5 m/s.

## Set 3

1. Which is the cheapest device for measuring flow / discharge rate.
a) Venturimeter
b) Pitot tube
c) Orificemeter
d) None of the mentioned

Answer: c [Reason:] Orificemeter is the cheapest available device for measuring flow/discharge rate.

2. The principle of Orificemeter is same as that of Venturimeter.
a) True
b) False

Answer: a [Reason:] The working principle for both Orificemeter and Venturimeter is same.

3. What is the relationship between Orificemeter diameter and pipe diameter
a) Orificemeter diameter is 0.5 times the pipe diameter
b) Orificemeter diameter is one third times the pipe diameter
c) Orificemeter diameter is one fourth times the pipe diameter
d) Orificemeter diameter is equal to the pipe diameter

4. The Orificemeter readings are more accurate than Venturimeter.
a) True
b) False

Answer: b [Reason:] The Venturimeter readings are more accurate than Orificemeter.

5. The Orificemeter readings are more accurate than Pitot tube readings.
a) True
b) False

Answer: b [Reason:] The Pitot tube readings are more accurate than Orificemeter.

6. The Orificemeter has a smooth edge hole.
a) True
b) False

Answer: b [Reason:] The Orificemeter has a rough edge hole.

7. A nanometre is connected to a section which is at a distance of about 4 to 6 times the pipe diameter upstream from orifice plate.
a) True
b) False

Answer: b [Reason:] A manometre is connected to a section which is at a distance of about 1.5 to 2.0 times the pipe diameter upstream from orifice plate.

8. Venturimeter is based on integral form of Euler’s equation.
a) True
b) False

Answer: a [Reason:] Venturimeter is based on Bernoulli’s equation.

9. Orifice Meter can only be used for measuring rate of flow in open pipe like structure.
a) True
b) False

Answer: a [Reason:] Orificemetre can only be used for measuring rate of flow in an enclosed pipe like structure.

10. Orifice meter consists of a flat rectangular plate.
a) True
b) False

Answer: b [Reason:] Orifice meter consists of a flat circular plate.

## Set 4

1. Which of the following glycoprotein functions as a lubricant and protective agent?
a) Collagens
b) Mucins
c) Transferrins
d) Immunoglobulins

Answer: b [Reason:] Mucins function as a lubricant and protective agent.

2. Which of the following is a hydroxyl fatty acid?
a) Linoleic acid
b) Palmitic acid
c) Linolenic acid
d) Cerebronic acid

Answer: d [Reason:] Cerebronic acid is a fatty acid with -OH derivative.

3. Which of the following is false about fatty acids?
a) Melting point of fatty acids decreases with increase in degree of saturation
b) Lipids in tissues that are subjected to cooling are more unsaturated
c) Naturally occurring unsaturated long-chain fatty acids are nearly Trans-configuration
d) The membrane lipids contain mostly unsaturated fatty acids

Answer: c [Reason:] Saturated long chain fatty acids are nearly trans-configuration.

4. The binding of ligands to many GPCRs leads to
a) Decrease in concentration of second messengers
b) Increase in concentration of second messengers
c) Decrease in concentration of first messengers
d) Increase in concentration of first messengers

Answer: a [Reason:] The binding of ligands to many GPCRs leads to decrease in concentration of second messengers.

5. Which of the following are included in the types of glycolipids?
a) N-acetylgalactosamine
b) N-acetylglucosamine
c) Xylose
d) Cerebrosides

Answer: d [Reason:] Cerebrosides are a group of glycosphingolipids, which are the subgroup of glycolipids.

6. Which of the following catalyzes the cutting of PIP2 into 2 moles of IP3 and diacylglycerol in cell signaling?
a) Phosphokinase C
b) Phospholipase C
c) Lipokinase
d) Phosphodiesterase C

Answer: b [Reason:] PLC also named as phospholipase grabs onto PIP2 and cuts it into diacylglycerol and IP3.

7. Site directed mutagenesis facilitated research on
a) Carbohydrates
b) Proteins
c) Lipids
d) Fats

Answer: b [Reason:] Site directed mutagenesis changes the amino acid sequence by altering DNA sequence of cloned gene. It facilitates research on proteins.

8. The product formed in the isomerization of mannose 6-phosphate
a) Fructose 6-phosphate
b) Glucose 6-phosphate
c) 2-phosphoglycerate
d) 3-phosphoglycerate

Answer: a [Reason:] Mannose 6-phosphate is isomerized by phosphomannose isomerase to yield fructose 6-phosphate.

9. The first reaction of the pentose phosphate pathway is
a) Oxidation of glucose 6-phosphate to 6-phosphoglucono-δ-lactone
b) Oxidation of 6-phosphogluconate to ketopentose ribulose 5-phosphate
c) Reduction of 6-phosphoglucono-δ-lactone to glucose 6-phosphate
d) Reduction of ketopentose ribulose 5-phosphate to 6-phosphogluconate

Answer: a [Reason:] The first reaction of the pentose phosphate pathway is the oxidation of glucose 6-phosphate to 6-phosphoglucono-δ-lactone by glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase.

10. Oxidation of 3 molecules of glucose by pentose phosphate pathway results in the production of
a) 3 molecules of pentose, 6 molecules of NADPH and 3 molecules of CO2
b) 4 molecules of pentose, 6 molecules of NADPH and 3 molecules of CO2
c) 4 molecules of pentose, 3 molecules of NADPH and 3 molecules of CO2
d) 3 molecules of pentose, 4 molecules of NADPH and 3 molecules of CO2

Answer: a [Reason:] Glucose 6-phosphate + 2NADP+ + H2O → ribose 5-phosphate + CO2 + 2NADPH + 2H+.

## Set 5

1. Transcription is catalyzed by
a) DNA-dependent RNA polymerases
b) RNA-dependent DNA polymerases
c) Reverse transcriptases
d) DNA ligases

Answer: a [Reason:] Transcription is catalyzed by DNA-dependent RNA polymerases, which use ribonucleotide 5’-triphosphates to synthesize RNA complementary to the template strand of duplex DNA.

2. Where does RNA polymerase bind DNA?
a) Promoter
b) Operator
c) Enhancer
d) None

Answer: a [Reason:] Transcription initiation occurs when RNA polymerase binds at specific DNA sequences called promoters.

3. Which of the following is true about RNA synthesis?
a) Synthesis of RNA is always in the 5’ to 3’ direction
b) RNA polymerase requires a primer for initiating transcription
c) U is inserted opposite T in transcription
d) New nucleotides are added on the 2’-OH of the ribose sugar

Answer: a [Reason:] Unlike DNA polymerase, RNA polymerase does not require a primer to initiate transcription.

4. Role of sigma factor in bacterial RNA polymerase is
a) Catalyzing RNA synthesis
b) Positioning RNA polymerase correctly on the DNA template
c) Terminating RNA synthesis
d) Unwinding DNA template

Answer: b [Reason:] Sigma factor enables specific binding of RNA polymerase to promoter.

5. TBP stands for?
a) TATA box polymerase
b) TATA-box binding protein
c) Transcription associated factor
d) Transcription factor binding protein

Answer: b [Reason:] TBP stands for TATA-box binding protein.

6. Actinomycin D is an inhibitor of
a) Transcription
b) Translation
c) Replication
d) None

Answer: a [Reason:] The elongation of RNA strands by RNA polymerase in both bacteria and eukaryotes is inhibited by the antibiotic actinomycin D.

7. Number of hydrogen bonds that form between U and A in a Watson-Crick base pair interactions?
a) 0
b) 1
c) 2
d) 3

Answer: c [Reason:] According to Watson-Crick base pair interactions, number of hydrogen bonds between U and A are 2 and between G and C are 3.

8. Repressors bind to
a) Promoter
b) Enhancer
c) Operator
d) Hormone response element

Answer: c [Reason:] A repressor molecule binds to operator.

9. RNA primer is removed from the Okazaki fragment by
a) DNA polymerase I
b) DNA polymerase II
c) DNA polymerase III
d) RNA polymerase