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Multiple choice question for engineering

Set 1

1. Which of the following enzyme catalyzes the first step of glycolysis?
a) Hexokinase
b) Pyruvate kinase
c) Glucokinase
d) Phosphofructokinase-1

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The first of glycolysis is irreversible under intracellular conditions and is catalyzed by hexokinase.

2. The general term used for the anaerobic degradation of glucose to obtain energy is
a) Anabolism
b) Oxidation
c) Fermentation
d) Metabolism

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Fermentation is the general term used for the degradation of glucose to obtain energy in the form of ATP.

3. Whenever the cell’s ATP supply is depleted, which of the following enzyme’s activity is increased?
a) Hexokinase
b) Pyruvate kinase
c) Glucokinase
d) Phosphofructokinase-1

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Phosphofructokinase-1 is a regulatory enzyme; it is the major point of regulation in glycolysis. Its activity is increased whenever the cell’s ATP supply is depleted.

4. Cleavage of Fructose 1, 6-biophosphate yields
a) Two aldoses
b) Two ketoses
c) An aldose and a ketose
d) Only a ketose

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Fructose 1, 6-biophosphate is cleaved to yield glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, an aldehyde and dihydroxyacetone phosphate, a ketose.

5. Dihydroxyacetone phosphate is rapidly and reversibly converted to
a) Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
b) 1, 3-bis-phosphoglycerate
c) Fructose 1, 6-bisphosphate
d) Fructose 6-phosphate

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Dihydroxyacetone phosphate is rapidly and reversibly converted to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate by triose phosphate isomerase.

6. The first step in the payoff phase of glycolysis is
a) Reduction of 1, 3-bisphosphoglycerate to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
b) Oxidation of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to 1, 3-bisphosphoglycerate
c) Reversible conversion of dihydroxyacetone phosphate to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
d) Irreversible conversion of dihydroxyacetone phosphate to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase catalyzes the first step in the payoff phase, oxidation of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to 1, 3-bisphosphoglycerate.

7. The substrate used in the last step of glycolysis is
a) Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
b) Pyruvate
c) Phosphoenolpyruvate
d)1, 3-bisphosphoglycerate

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The last step in glycolysis is the transfer of phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate to ADP catalyzed by pyruvate kinase.

8. High concentration of glucose 6-phosphate is inhibitory to
a) Hexokinase
b) Pyruvate kinase
c) Glucokinase
d) Phosphofructokinase-1

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Hexokinase catalyzes the reaction involving conversion of glucose to glucose 6-phosphate.

9. The product formed in the first substrate level phosphorylation in glycolysis is
a) Pyruvate
b) 3-phosphoglycerate
c) 1, 3-bisphosphoglycerate
d) 2-phosphoglycerate

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Phosphoglycerate kinase transfers phosphoryl group from 1, 3-bisphosphoglycerate to ADP forming ATP and 3-phosphoglycerate.

10. Glycolysis converts
a) Glucose into pyruvate
b) Glucose into phosphoenolpyruvate
c) Fructose into pyruvate
d) Fructose into phosphoenolpyruvate

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Glycolysis is a metabolic pathway that converts glucose into pyruvate.

Set 2

1. Phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol yields
a) Phosphatidylinositol 4, 5-biphosphate
b) Phosphatidylinositol 3, 5-biphosphate
c) Phosphatidylinositol 3, 4-biphosphate
d) Phosphatidylinositol 5, 6-biphosphate

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol yields phosphatidylinositol 4, 5-biphosphate.

2. Which of the following vitamin is derived from cholesterol?
a) A
b) B
c) C
d) D

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Vitamin-D is derived from cholesterol.

3. What leads to the activation of protein kinase C?
a) Release of intracellular Ca+2 + diacylglycerol
b) Release of intracellular Mg+ + diacylglycerol
c) Release of intracellular Ca+2 + glycerol
d) Release of intracellular Ca+2 + triacylglycerol

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Release of intracellular Ca+2 + diacylglycerol causes activation of protein kinase C.

4. Which of the following serves as a specific binding site for the proteins involved in membrane fusion during exocytosis?
a) Phosphatidylinositol
b) Phosphatidylinositol 4, 5-biphosphate
b) Phosphatidylinositol 3, 5-biphosphate
c) Phosphatidylinositol 3, 4-biphosphate

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Phosphatidylinositol 4, 5-biphosphate in the cytoplasmic face of plasma membranes serves as a specific binding site for certain cytoskeletal proteins and for some soluble proteins involved in membranes fusion during exocytosis.

5. Which of the following hormone is responsible for the activation of phospholipase C?
a) Serotonin
b) Cortisol
c) Vasopressin
d) Adrenaline

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Vasopressin, when it binds to the plasma membrane receptors on the epithelial cells of the renal collecting duct, a specific phospholipase C is activated.

6. An example of glycerophospholipid involved in cell signaling is
a) Cardiolipin
b) Phosphatidic acid
c) Phosphatidylcholine
d) Phosphatidylinositol

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Phosphatidylinositol is involved in cell signaling.

7. Which of the following type structure contains all the three glycosphingolipids?
a) B structure
b) A structure
c) O structure
d) AB structure

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Type O structure has all the three glycosphingolipids.

8. The lipids with potent bio activities derived from isoprenoid precursors are common in
a) Vitamin A, K, ubiquinone and dolichol
b) Vitamin A, D, ubiquinone and dolichol
c) Vitamin A, B, D and K
d) Vitamin A, B, K and dolichol

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Vitamin A, K, ubiquinone and dolichol have in common the lipids with potent bio activities derived from isoprenoid precursors.

9. Which of the following vitamin is responsible for Ca+2 and phosphate metabolism?
a) A
b) K
c) E
d) D

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Vitamin A –vision Vitamin K-blood clotting Vitamin E-prevention of oxidative damage.

10. How many products are obtained by the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol by phospholipase C?
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Inositol 1, 4, 5-triphosphate and diacylglycerol are the two products obtained by the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol by phospholipase C.

Set 3

1. The G protein involved in visual signal transduction is
a) Rhodopsin
b) GTP receptor
c) Arrestin
d) Transducin

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Rhodopsin is involved in visual signal transduction.

2. Cholera toxin is not a/an
a) Enzyme inhibitor
b) Enzyme activator
c) Enzyme modifier
d) Toxin released from bacteria in the infected intestine

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Cholera toxin is released from bacteria in the infected intestine. It inhibits the stimulation of cAMP synthesis.

3. In cholera there is uncontrolled secretion of
a) Na+ and H2O
b) K+ and H2O
c) Ca+2 and H2O
d) Mg+2 and H2O

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] There is an uncontrolled secretion of Na+ and H2O in the intestine.

4. Vision, olfaction and gustation employ
a) Serpentine receptors
b) Enzyme coupled receptors
c) Ligand gated receptors
d) Adhesion receptors

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Serpentine receptors play an important role in rhodopsins, visual sense, olfaction and gustation.

5. Which out of the following statements about sense of smell is not true?
a) Olfactory receptor cells are bipolar neurons, not replaced when damaged
b) The chemicals are received by specific plasma membrane receptors in olfactory receptor cells
c) Olfactory receptors do not adapt quickly
d) The main areas of brain that interpret sense of smell be in the temporal and frontal lobes

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Olfactory receptors adapt quickly, the odor seems to be less powerful after a few minutes of exposure.

6. Most olfactory receptors are located on the
a) Superior surface of nasal cavity
b) Interior surface of nasal cavity
c) Lateral surface of nasal cavity
d) Medial surface of nasal cavity

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Most olfactory receptors are located on the superior surface of nasal cavity.

7. Objects are perceived by photo receptors because rods or cones
a) Depolarize
b) Hyperpolarize
c) Repolarize
d) Polarize

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The objects are perceived by photo receptors because rods or cones hyperpolarize as their pigments may decompose in presence of light.

8. Which of the following statements is not true about olfactory neurons?
a) Axons of olfactory neurons combine to form olfactory nerves
b) They synapse with cells in olfactory bulb
c) They have receptors that react with odorants dissolved in fluid
d) They are uni-polar neurons

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Olfactory neurons are bipolar neurons.

9. What is the relationship between olfactory sensors and gustatory sensors?
a) Gustatory hair can also detect odorants
b) Olfactory hair can also detect tastants
c) Olfactory sensors provides information about substance that we are about to taste
d) No relation

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The taste of food is partially due to food molecules stimulating olfactory receptors in the nose other than gustatory sensors in the mouth.

10. When visual stimulus reaches receptors in retina of eye, first process involving absorption of physical energy by receptors is
a) Reception
b) Transduction
c) Coding
d) Adaptation

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Reception is the first process involved in the absorption of physical energy by receptors when visual stimulus reaches receptors in retina of eye.

11. When visual stimulus reaches receptors in retina of eye, second process involving absorption of physical energy by receptors is
a) Reception
b) Transduction
c) Coding
d) Adaptation

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Transduction is the second process involved in the absorption of physical energy by receptors when visual stimulus reaches receptors in retina of eye.

Set 4

1. Which of the following is not one of the states of lipids?
a) Para crystalline state
b) Liquid ordered state
c) Liquid disordered state
d) Crystalline state

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Para crystalline state, liquid ordered state and liquid disordered state are the states of lipids.

2. Which of the following arrangement based on the increasing order of motion is correct?
a) Uncatalysed transverse motion, transverse diffusion catalyzed by flippase, uncatalysed lateral diffusion
b) Uncatalysed lateral diffusion, uncatalysed transverse motion, transverse diffusion catalyzed by flippase,
c) Uncatalysed transverse motion, uncatalysed lateral diffusion, transverse diffusion catalyzed by flippase
d) Transverse diffusion catalyzed by flippase, uncatalysed lateral diffusion, uncatalysed transverse motion,

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Uncatalysed transverse motion (slow), transverse diffusion catalyzed by flippase (fast), uncatalysed lateral diffusion (very fast).

3. Movement of phospholipids from side to side is called
a) Facilitated diffusion
b) Lateral diffusion
c) Transverse diffusion
d) Simple diffusion

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] In lateral diffusion, movement of phospholipids from side to side.

4. Movement of phospholipids to opposite sides is called
a) Facilitated diffusion
b) Lateral diffusion
c) Transverse diffusion
d) Simple diffusion

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] In transverse diffusion, movement of phospholipids to opposite sides.

5. Trans bilayer diffusion is also called
a) Facilitated diffusion
b) Lateral diffusion
c) Flip flop
d) Simple diffusion

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Trans bilayer diffusion is also called “Flip flop”.

6. Which of the following is an example of heterodimeric protein?
a) Integrin
b) Antibodies
c) Receptor tyrosine kinase
d) G-protein coupled receptor

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Antibodies, receptor tyrosine kinase and G-protein coupled receptor are homodimeric.

7. Which of the following is an example of peripheral membrane protein?
a) Insulin receptor
b) Glycophorin
c) Integrin
d) Glycolipid transfer proteins

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Insulin receptor, glycophorin and integrin are integral membranes.

8. Which of the following proteins does not function in cell- cell interaction?
a) Integrin
b) Cadherin
c) N-CAM
d) Cytochrome c

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Integral proteins Integrin, Cadherin, N-CAM and selectin function in cell- cell interaction.

9. Which of the following integral membrane protein is a special class of membrane rafts?
a) Caveolin
b) Integrin
c) Cadherin
d) Selectin

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Caveolin is a special class of membrane rafts.

10. Which of the following is one of the family of immunoglobin like proteins that mediate Ca+2?
a) N-CAM
b) Integrin
c) Cadherin
d) Selectin

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] N-CAM is one of the family of immunoglobulin like proteins that mediate Ca+2.

Set 5

1. Glutamate is metabolically converted to α-ketoglutarate and NH4+ by a process
a) Oxidative deamination
b) Transamination
c) Reductive deamination
d) Deamination

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Glutamate is metabolically converted to α-ketoglutarate and NH4+ by a process oxidative deamination catalyzed by L-glutamate dehydrogenase.

2. Free ammonia combined with glutamate to yield glutamine by the action of
a) Glutaminase
b) Glutamine synthase
c) Glutamate dehydrogenase
d) Amino transferase

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The free ammonia is combined with glutamate to yield glutamine by the action of glutamine synthase.

3. Pyridoxal phosphate and its aminate form, pyridoxamine phosphate are tightly bound coenzymes of
a) Amino transferases
b) Glutaminase
c) Glutamine synthase
d) Glutamate dehydrogenase

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] All aminotransferases have pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) as cofactor.

4. The necessary coenzyme for transamination reactions is
a) Pyridoxal phosphate
b) Thiamine pyrophosphate
c) NAD
d) Coenzyme A

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Pyridoxal phosphate functions as an intermediate carrier of amino groups at the active site of amino transferases.

5. The first step in the catabolism of most L-amino acids once they have reached the liver is promoted by
a) Amino transferases
b) Glutaminase
c) Glutamine synthase
d) Glutamate dehydrogenase

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The first step in the catabolism of most L-amino acids once they have reached the liver is removal of the α-amino groups promoted by enzymes called amino transferases or trasaminases.

6. The combined action of aminotransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase is referred as
a) Oxidative deamination
b) Transamination
c) Reductive deamination
d) Transdeamination

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The combined action of aminotransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase is referred as transdeamination.

7. Glutamine is converted to glutamate and NH4+ by
a) Amino transferases
b) Glutaminase
c) Glutamine synthase
d) Glutamate dehydrogenase

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] In the tissues of intestine, liver and kidneys, the amide nitrogen is released as ammonium ion in the mitochondria, where glutaminase converts glutamine to glutamate and NH4+.

8. Which of the following operates at an important intersection of carbon and nitrogen metabolism?
a) Amino transferases
b) Glutaminase
c) Glutamine synthase
d) Glutamate dehydrogenase

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Glutamate dehydrogenase operates at an important intersection of carbon and nitrogen metabolism.

9. Trypsinogen is converted to its active state by
a) Enteropeptidase
b) Glutaminase
c) Glutamine synthase
d) Glutamate dehydrogenase

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Trypsinogen is converted to its active state by enteropeptidase, a proteolytic enzyme secreted by intestinal cells.

10. Which of the following hydrolyzes successive amino-terminal residues from short peptides?
a) Aminopeptidase
b) Enteropeptidase
c) Glutamine synthase
d) Glutamate dehydrogenase

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Aminopeptidase hydrolyzes successive amino-terminal residues from short peptides.