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Multiple choice question for engineering

Set 1

1. Which of the following statements about thylakoids is false?
a) They contain chlorophyll pigments
b) They contain the photosystems
c) They contain Calvin cycle enzymes
d) They contain the electron transport machinery

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Chloroplast stroma contains Calvin cycle enzymes and intermediates.

2. One of the following is the source of electrons in photosynthesis
a) Carbohydrates
b) CO2
c) Water
d) NADH

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Water is the source of electrons in photosynthesis. These electrons are required to reduce oxidized chlorophyll a molecules.

3. Which of the following about Calvin cycle is correct?
a) It is a metabolic pathway by which plants convert CO2 into pentose sugars as the main product
b) With decrease in light intensity, the enzymes are more reactive
c) Rubisco adds CO2 to 3-phosphoglycerate
d) It is a metabolic pathway by which plants convert CO2 and water into carbohydrates

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] CO2 combines with ribulose 1, 5-bisphosphate. The enzymes are more reactive if there is an increase in light intensity.

4. Favorable conditions for cyclic photophosphorylation are
a) Aerobic and optimum light
b) Aerobic condition only
c) Aerobic and low light intensity
d) Anaerobic and low light intensity

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Favorable conditions for cyclic photophosphorylation are aerobic and optimum light.

5. Hydrogen is transferred from the light reaction to the dark reaction in photosynthesis by
a) DPN
b) NAD
c) ATP
d) NADP

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Diphosphopyridine nucleotide transfers hydrogen from the light reaction to the dark reaction in photosynthesis.

6. Calvin cycle occurs in
a) Cytoplasm
b) Chloroplast
c) Mitochondria
d) Golgi body

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Calvin cycle occurs in cytoplasm.

7. Light energy is converted to chemical energy in the presence of
a) Chloroplast
b) Ribosomes
c) Mitochondria
d) Stomata

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Photosynthetic pigment chlorophyll captures the energy from sunlight and converts it and stores it in energy-storage molecules ATP and NADPH.

8. Photosynthesis can be described as
a) Reductive, anabolic, endergonic process
b) Reductive, anabolic, exergonic process
c) Oxidative, anabolic, endergonic process
d) Oxidative, catabolic, exergonic process

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Photosynthesis involves gaining of electrons; producing complex substances from simpler ones and requires energy.

9. The first person to study the influence of light during photosynthesis is
a) Blackmann
b) Van Niel
c) J. Ingenhouz
d) Warburg

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Jan Ingenhouz was the best known to show that light is essential for photosynthesis.

10. The percentage of light energy fixed in photosynthesis is around
a) 100%
b) 10%
c) 1%
d) 0.1%

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Around 1% of light energy is fixed in photosynthesis.

Set 2

1. cDNA, a term used in recombinant DNA technology means
a) Competitive DNA
b) Chemical DNA
c) Complex DNA
d) Complementary DNA

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Complementary DNA is also termed as cDNA.

2. The process of introduction of foreign DNA into an animal cell is called
a) Transversion
b) Conversion
c) Inversion
d) Transfection

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Transfection is the deliberate inducing of foreign DNA into an animal cell.

3. A segment of DNA that reads from the same forward and backward is called
a) Palindromic DNA
b) Complementary DNA
c) Plasmid DNA
d) Copy DNA

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] A palindromic sequence is the same when read from 5’ to 3’ on one strand and 3’ to 5’ on its complementary strand.

4. Which of the following enzyme is used in PCR?
a) Taq DNA polymerase
b) HRP
c) EcoRI
d) EcoRII

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] HRP is an enzyme used in ELISA. EcorI and EcorII are the restriction enzymes. So only a DNA polymerase is responsible for producing multiple copies of DNA sequence.

5. Which of the following is helpful in distinguishing DNA of one individual from another?
a) PCR
b) Reverse transcriptase
c) cDNA
d) RFLP

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) is helpful in distinguishing one individual from another.

6. Which of the following is the correct order of organization of genetic material from largest to smallest?
a) Genome, chromosome, gene, nucleotide
b) Nucleotide, gene, chromosome, genome
c) Gene, nucleotide, chromosome, genome
d) Chromosome, genome, nucleotide, gene

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Group of nucleotides make up a gene, these genes make up a chromosome and these chromosomes make up to genome.

7. Which of the following codons is not a termination codon for protein synthesis?
a) UUU
b) UAG
c) UAA
d) UGA

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] After the ribosome reaches the codon UAG or UAA or UGA on m-RNA strand, protein synthesis is terminated.

8. Which of the following are the two methods of screening?
a) Hybridization and PCR
b) ELISA and blotting
c) ELISA and PCR
d) PCR and RFLP

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Hybridization and PCR are the two methods of screening.

9. Short sub-sequence of a cDNA sequence is
a) Expressed sequence tag
b) Sequence tagged site
c) Contig
d) YAC

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Sequence tagged site is a short DNA sequence having single occurrence in genome. Cotig is a set of overlapping DNA segments that together represent a consensus region of DNA. YAC is a linear DNA molecule.

10. Short DNA sequence having single occurrence in genome is
a) Expressed sequence tag
b) Sequence tagged site
c) Contig
d) YAC

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Expressed sequence tag is a short sub-sequence of a cDNA sequence. Cotig is a set of overlapping DNA segments that together represent a consensus region of DNA. YAC is a linear DNA molecule.

Set 3

1. The study of full complement of proteins expressed by a genome is called
a) Proteome
b) Proteomics
c) Genomics
d) Protein formation

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The full complement of proteins expressed by a genome is called proteome and the study of it is called proteomics.

2. The effects of protein on an entire organism is described in
a) Phenotypic function
b) Cellular function
c) Molecular function
d) Structural genomics

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Cellular function, it describes about the network of interactions engaged in by protein at cellular level. Molecular function, it describes the precise biochemical activity of a protein. Structural genomics, it includes sequencing of genomic DNA.

3. The network of interactions engaged in by protein at cellular level is described in
a) Phenotypic function
b) Cellular function
c) Molecular function
d) Structural genomics

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Molecular function, it describes the precise biochemical activity of a protein. Structural genomics, it includes sequencing of genomic DNA. Phenotypic function, it describes the effects of protein on an entire organism.

4. The precise biochemical activity of a protein is described in
a) Phenotypic function
b) Cellular function
c) Molecular function
d) Structural genomics

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Structural genomics, it includes sequencing of genomic DNA. Phenotypic function, it describes the effects of protein on an entire organism. Cellular function, it describes about the network of interactions engaged in by protein at cellular level.

5. Sequencing of genomic DNA is included in
a) Phenotypic function
b) Cellular function
c) Molecular function
d) Structural genomics

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Phenotypic function, it describes the effects of protein on an entire organism. Cellular function, it describes about the network of interactions engaged in by protein at cellular level. Molecular function, it describes the precise biochemical activity of a protein.

6. The goal of structural proteomics project is
a) To crystallize and determine the structure of as many proteins as possible, in many cases with little or no existing information about protein function
b) To identify and sequence of all the genes present in the human body
c) To introduce new genes to human beings
d) To remove disease causing genes from humans

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Options b, c, d comes under the goals of human genomic project.

7. Conserved gene order can be termed as
a) Ortholog
b) Synteny
c) Paralog
d) Microarray

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Genes of different species but possessing a clear sequence and functional relationship to each other are orthologs. Genes of same species, similarly related to each other are paralogs. Collections of microscopic DNA spots attached to solid surface are DNA microarrays.

8. Genes of different species but possessing a clear sequence and functional relationship to each other are
a) Ortholog
b) Synteny
c) Paralog
d) Microarray

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Collections of microscopic DNA spots attached to solid surface are DNA microarrays. Genes of same species, similarly related to each other are paralogs. Synteny is a conserved gene order.

9. Genes of same species, similarly related to each other are
a) Ortholog
b) Synteny
c) Paralog
d) Microarray

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Genes of different species but possessing a clear sequence and functional relationship to each other are orthologs. Synteny is a conserved gene order. Collections of microscopic DNA spots attached to solid surface are DNA microarrays.

10. Collection of microscopic DNA spots attached to solid surface are
a) Ortholog
b) Synteny
c) Paralog
d) Microarray

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Genes of different species but possessing a clear sequence and functional relationship to each other are orthologs. Genes of same species, similarly related to each other are paralogs. Synteny is a conserved gene order.

Set 4

1. Which of the following is not an important precursor of glucose in animals?
a) Lactate
b) Pyruvate
c) Glycerol
d) Glucose 6-phosphate

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The important precursors of glucose in animals are three-carbon compounds such as lactate, pyruvate and glycerol as well as certain amino acids.

2. Which of the following statements is false about gluconeogenesis?
a) From the hydrolysis of tri-acyl-glycerol, fatty acids can be used as a carbon source
b) From red blood cells, lactate can be used as a carbon source
c) From the hydrolysis of tri-acyl-glycerol, glycerol is converted to glucose in gluconeogenesis
d) From muscle vigorous muscle activity, lactate can be used as a carbon source

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] From the hydrolysis of tri-acyl-glycerol, fatty acids cannot be used as a carbon source.

3. The enzyme which catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to oxaloacetate
a) Pyruvate carboxylase
b) Pyruvate dehydrogenase
c) Pyruvate kinase
d) Phosphofructokinase-1

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Pyruvate carboxylase requires the coenzyme biotin to convert pyruvate to oxaloacetate.

4. Oxaloacetate is reduced to malate by
a) Pyruvate carboxylase
b) Malate dehydrogenase
c) Pyruvate kinase
d) Phosphofructokinase-1

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Oxaloacetate formed from pyruvate is reduced to malate by malate dehydrogenase.

5. Gluconeogenesis involves conversion of
a) Glucose to pyruvate
b) Pyruvate to glucose
c) Phosphoenolpyruvate to glucose
d) Pyruvate to fructose

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Gluconeogenesis is the process of conversion of pyruvate to glucose whereas glycolysis is the process of conversion of glucose to pyruvate.

6. Which of the following organisms cannot covert acetyl-coA derived from fatty acids into glucose?
a) Animals
b) Plants
c) Bacteria
d) Virus

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Animals cannot convert acetyl-coA derived from fatty acids into glucose; plants and microorganisms can.

7. Formation of one molecule of glucose from pyruvate requires
a) 4 ATP, 2 GTP and 2 NADH
b) 3 ATP, 2 GTP and 2 NADH
c) 4 ATP, 1 GTP and 2 NADH
d) 2 ATP, 2 GTP and 2 NADH

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Formation of one molecule of glucose from pyruvate requires 4 ATP, 2 GTP and 2 NADH.

8. Ethanol is oxidized to acetaldehyde in the liver cytoplasm by
a) Alcohol dehydrogenase
b) Alcohol carboxylase
c) Pyruvate carboxylase
d) Pyruvate kinase

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Ethanol is oxidized to acetaldehyde in the liver cytoplasm by alcohol dehydrogenase which is the converted to acetate.

9. The main source of glucose carbons for gluconeogenesis is
a) Guanine
b) Alanine
c) Cysteine
d) Threonine

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The main source of glucose carbons for gluconeogenesis is alanine derived from breakdown of muscle proteins.

10. Which of the following statements about gluconeogenesis is correct?
a) Pyruvate is first converted to phosphoenolpyruvate by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase
b) Fructose 1, 6-biphosphatase converts fructose 1, 6-bisphosphate into fructose 1-phosphate
c) Glucose 6-phosphatase hydrolyzes glucose 6-phosphate to release glucose into the blood
d) Glucose 6-phosphatase hydrolyzes glucose 6-phosphate and is found in liver and muscle

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Glucose 6-phosphate is hydrolyzed by glucose 6-phosphatase to release glucose into blood.

Set 5

1. Which of the following are found in connective tissues?
a) Glycosamineglycans
b) Proteoglycans
c) Gycoproteins
d) Glycolipids

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Proteoglycans are found in all connective tissues, extracellular matrix and on the surface of many cell surfaces.

2. Which of the following statements is false about proteoglacans?
a) They hold less amount of water
b) Chondroitin sulfate is a proteoglycan
c) They possess charge
d) They are made of amino acids and sugars

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] They hold large amounts of water.

3. In cell membrane, carbohydrates in glycoproteins or glycolipids are oriented?
a) Towards outside
b) Towards inside
c) Towards outside and inside
d) Randomly distributed

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Orientation of carbohydrates in glycoproteins is towards outside in cell membrane.

4. Which of the following is an oligosaccharide linked to protein?
a) Glycolipid
b) Glycoprotein
c) Ganglioside
d) Galactoside

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Glycolipid is linked to lipid.

5. The protein core of proteoglycan is rich in
a) Serine and threonine
b) Serine and methionine
c) Threonine and methionine
d) Alanine and serine

View Answer

Answer: a

6. Which of the following are included in the types of glycolipids?
a) N-acetylgalactosamine
b) N-acetylglucosamine
c) Xylose
d) Cerebrosides

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Cerebrosides are a group of glycosphingolipids, which are the subgroup of glycolipids.

7. Which of the following blood group individuals have N-acetylgalactosamine sugar attachment?
a) A
b) B
c) AB
d) O

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] A blood group individuals have N-acetylgalactosamine sugar attachment.

8. Which of the following blood group individuals have galactose ?
a) A
b) B
c) AB
d) O

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] B blood group individuals have galactose.

9. Which of the following glycoprotein functions as a lubricant and protective agent?
a) Collagens
b) Mucins
c) Transferrins
d) Immunoglobulins

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Mucins function as a lubricant and protective agent.

10. Which of the following are important for white blood cell recognition?
a) Glycosamineglycans
b) Proteoglycans
c) Gycoproteins
d) Glycolipids

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Especially in mammals glycoproteins are essential for white blood cell recognition.