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Multiple choice question for engineering

Set 1

1. Which of the following defines a food additive?
a) Substance which is/ may become a part of food
b) A substance or a mixture of substances which is present in food as a result of any aspect of production, processing, storage or packaging
c) A substance, the intended use of which results or may reasonably be expected to result in its becoming a component or otherwise affecting the characteristics of any food with certain exceptions
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] All of the mentioned defines a food additive by different definitions.

2. Which of the following terms/ food items are NOT included in the definition of a food additive?
a) Food items that find their way accidentally or unintentionally
b) Pesticides, color additives
c) New animal drugs or any substance used in accordance with a sanction or approval granted prior to effective date of food additives amendment of 1958
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] All of the mentioned products are not included in the definition of a food additive.

3. Which of the following is a use of food additive?
a) Maintenance of nutritional quality of food and providing essential aids in food processing
b) Enhancement of keeping quality or stability with resulting reduction in food losses
c) Making food attractive to the consumer in a manner which does not lead to deception
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] All of the mentioned are functions of food additives.

4. Which of the following undesirable quality pertains to the undesirable use of additives?
a) To disguise the use of faulty processing and handling techniques
b) To deceive consumers and result in a substantial reduction of the nutritive value of the food
c) When the desired effect can be obtained by good manufacturing practices which are economically feasible
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] All of the mentioned are undesirable qualities pertaining to the undesirable use of additives.

5. Which of the following is a function of a chemical additive?
a) Preservation
b) Serve as nutritional supplement
c) Color modifiers
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The entire mentioned are functions of a chemical additive.

6. Which of the following chemical additive is banned in the United States and in most of the other countries?
a) Brandy
b) Olestra
c) Baking Soda
d) None of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Olestra is a chemical additive that has been banned. It is found in fat free potato chips. Addition of this leads to depletion of fat-soluble vitamins.

7. In canning, if the air in the head space is displaced with nitrogen, the gas is considered as a chemical preservative added to the food.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] In canning, if the air in the head space is displaced with nitrogen, the gas is NOT considered as a chemical preservative added to the food. This is because every chemical added to food during the process of fabrication is not a food preservative.

8. Statement 1: Sodium Sulphite is banned in certain countries like USA because it has preserving effect on animal tissues but with the combination of other agents.
Statement 2: Sulphuring dried fruits helps in controlling microbial and insect activity.
a) True, False
b) True, True
c) False, False
d) False, True

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Sodium Sulphite is banned in certain countries like USA because it has preserving effect on animal tissues but with the combination of other agents. Sulphuring dried fruits helps in controlling microbial and insect activity.

9. Sodium chloride which is the formula of common salt in large quantities is poisonous to man as is carbon dioxide.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Sodium chloride which is the formula of common salt in large quantities is poisonous to man as is carbon dioxide.

10. Which of the following food additive can be used for mold inhibition/ killing?
a) Propionates
b) Sulphur dioxide
c) Both of the mentioned
d) Neither of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Both of the mentioned food additives can be used for mold inhibition/ killing.

Set 2

1. Which of the following is true about mold inhibition?
a) Sorbic acid is used as a mold inhibitor in cheese
b) The quantity of Sorbic acid required for mold inhibition is one third the amount of sodium benzoate required
c) Propylene glycol and tri ethylene glycol have germicidal properties
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] All of the mentioned is true about mold inhibition.

2. Which of the following is valid when it comes to the future of antibiotics in food?
a) Should have no harmful effect on man when taken by mouth and preferably should be metabolizable
b) The economy of use, ease of use and reliability of control and detection must exist
c) Preferably compatible with other methods of permanent preservation
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] All of the mentioned are valid when it comes to the future of antibiotics in food.

3. Which of the following is a naturally occurring antioxidant?
a) Hydroquinone
b) Ascorbic acid
c) Vitamin E
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] All of the mentioned are naturally occurring antioxidants.

4. Statement 1: None of the naturally occurring antioxidant phenols are permitted as food additives.
Statement 2: Benzoic acid has certain antioxidant properties.
a) True, False
b) True, True
c) False, False
d) False, True

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] None of the naturally occurring antioxidant phenols are permitted as food additives. Benzoic acid has certain antioxidant properties.

5. Which of the following is true about synergism?
a) The mechanism of synergism depends on the nature of synergist, the antioxidant and the fat
b) Synergists do not have antioxidant properties alone
c) When two or more antioxidants combine, a greater effect than a single antioxidant is produced. This is referred to as synergism
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] All of the mentioned is true about synergism.

6. _____ salts are used in many fruit processing operations in concentrations below 0.1%.
a) Calcium
b) Magnesium
c) Sodium
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Calcium salts are used in many fruit processing operations in concentrations below 0.1%.

7. Which of the following is a use of waxing in plant tissues?
a) Reduces shrinkage losses
b) Reducing water losses due to evaporation
c) Thick leads to anaerobic respiration conditions and thin coat offers little control over moisture losses
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] All of the mentioned are uses of waxing in plant tissues.

8. Which of the following is a permitted food additive by the FDA when not in violation with other section of the act?
a) Aluminium sodium sulphate
b) Vitamin D-2
c) Sodium polyphosphate
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The entire mentioned are permitted food additives by the FDA when not in violation with other sections of the act.

9. Which of the following is NOT true about artificial coloring with respect to food?
a) It is defined as any material which contains a dye or a pigment
b) This dye or pigment can be obtained by extracting a natural dye or pigment from plants or other sources
c) Caramel falls under its definition
d) None of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Artificial coloring is defined as any material which contains a dye or a pigment. This dye or pigment can be obtained by extracting a natural dye or pigment from plants or other sources. Caramel falls under its definition as it is a pigment obtained from sugar.

10. When the coloring is truly artificial, the food statement “food color added” needs to be added.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] When the coloring is truly artificial, the food statement “food color added” is insufficient as the consumer may assume that the color has been derived from the food itself. The statement required is “artificial coloring”.

Set 3

1. Statement 1: Storage life of soft baked products is generally lesser than a week.
Statement 2: Refrigerated dough involves releasing of carbon-di-oxide gas as one of the steps.
a) True, False
b) True, True
c) False, False
d) False, True

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Storage life of soft baked products is generally lesser than a week. Refrigerated dough involves releasing of carbon-di-oxide gas as one of the steps.

2. Which of the following steps is NOT a step in making of refrigerated dough?
a) Sodium acid pyrophosphate and sodium bicarbonate is mixed
b) The dough is rolled and cut into disc shapes
c) Temperature maintained for the process is about 10 to 15 deg C
d) None of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] All of the above mentioned are steps in making dough.

3. The dough, in refrigerated dough making is stacked and packed in _____
a) Air-tight container
b) Dough tight container
c) None of the mentioned
d) Both of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The dough, in refrigerated dough making is stacked and packed in dough tight container not air tight container so that the carbon di oxide escapes from it till the dough reaches and blocks the gas outlets.

4. The disc shaped dough is dusted with rice flour to ______
a) Reduce its stickiness and prevent them from sticking together
b) To increase the flavor
c) Flour is a basic ingredient
d) None of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The disc shaped dough is dusted with rice flour to reduce its stickiness and prevent them from sticking together.

5. Phosphate based leavening agents in dough crystallize.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Phosphate based leavening agents in dough crystallize which leads consumer rejection of these goods.

6. Which of the following is a reason for the rejection of baked goods?
a) Uneven coloration
b) Glass-like appearance
c) Both of the mentioned
d) None of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Uneven coloration and glass-like appearance due to the presence of phosphate based agents leads to rejection of baked dough products.

7. Statement 1: Proofing is making the dough water proof.
Statement 2: Proofing increases the temperature of the dough from 7-10 deg C to 14-20 deg C.
a) True, False
b) True, True
c) False, False
d) False, True

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Proofing is making the dough water proof. Proofing increases the temperature of the dough from 7-10 deg C to 14-20 deg C that is the temperature from where phosphate agents affect the dough to temperatures they don’t affect the dough.

8. Proofing allows the required chemical reactions to take place to allow enough CO2 to leave the container and make the dough to fill the container so as to close the gas vents.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Proofing allows the required chemical reactions to take place to allow enough CO2 to leave the container and make the dough to fill the container so as to close the gas vents.

9. Statement 1: Canned dough is frozen below 0 deg C.
Statement 2: Canned dough is frozen above -6 deg C.
a) True, False
b) True, True
c) False, False
d) False, True

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Canned dough is frozen below 0 deg C but above -6 deg C which is its freezing point.

10. Proper conditioning of the dough at temperatures such as -7 deg C to -5 deg C are required to be maintained so that _____ is formed that prevents baked products from appearing glass-like.
a) Sodium potassium magnate
b) Sodium acid pyrophosphate
c) Sodium bicarbonate
d) Phosphate dodecahydrate

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Proper conditioning of the dough at temperatures such as -7 deg C to -5 deg C are required to be maintained so that phosphate dodecahydrate is formed that prevents baked products from appearing glass-like.

11. With the increase in temperature, the holding time of the dough for cooling needs to be_____
a) Increased
b) Decreased
c) Kept constant
d) None of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] With the increase in temperature, the holding time of the dough for cooling needs to be increased. When the temperature is decreased, the formation of phosphate dodecahydrate which is required to prevent effects of phosphates is speedier.

12. After phosphate dodecahydrate has been formed, the dough can be stored for more than 12 weeks.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] After phosphate dodecahydrate has been formed, the dough can be stored for more than 12 weeks.

13. Modification of carbon di oxide and oxygen levels for storage is worth it only if_____
a) The fruit/vegetable is more commercial than its storage in air
b) Storage time is brief
c) Storage temperature is optimal
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Modification of carbon di oxide and oxygen levels for storage is worth it only if the fruit/vegetable is more commercial than its storage in air. It is not required if storage time is brief and/or storage temperature is optimal.

14. Controlled atmosphere has more oxygen than carbon di oxide
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Both modified atmosphere (MA) and controlled atmosphere (CA) have more oxygen than carbon di oxide. It is due to formation of dry ice in the former and due to manual/automated control in the latter.

Set 4

1. Statement 1: Sorbic acid is an effective fungistatic agent.
Statement 2: Potassium sorbate solution + ethylene glycol helps in easy precipitation.
a) True, False
b) True, True
c) False, False
d) False, True

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Sorbic acid is an effective fungistatic agent. Potassium sorbate solution + ethylene glycol helps in easy precipitation.

2. _____ is known to discolor when held at high temperatures for extended periods.
a) Sorbic acid
b) Potassium sorbate
c) Both of the mentioned
d) Neither of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Both of the mentioned are known to discolor when held at high temperatures for extended periods.

3. Dog and cat food are prepared for the consumer in _____ form.
a) Dry cereal-like texture and low moisture content
b) Meat-like texture and high moisture content
c) Both of the mentioned
d) Neither of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Dog and cat food are prepared for the consumer in both of the mentioned form.

4. Animal foods must include _____ which prevent the growth of molds and yeast and are adaptable to highly soluble solid concentrations.
a) Antibodies
b) Antibacteria
c) Antimycotic
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Animal foods must include antimycotic which prevent the growth of molds and yeast and are adaptable to highly soluble solid concentrations.

5. An antimycotic can be added to the product by _____
a) Application as esters of the parabens
b) Sprayed onto the surface by diluting in water
c) Both of the mentioned
d) Neither of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] An antimycotic can be added to the product by both of the mentioned.

6. Which of the following is true about sugar in water soluble solids?
a) With the increase in moisture, the level of sugar will increase correspondingly to maintain a certain bacteriostatic effect
b) Its level will vary depending on level of auxiliary water soluble solids, offering an increase in osmotic pressure
c) Both of the mentioned
d) Neither of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Both of the mentioned are true about sugar in water soluble solids.

7. Which of the following property of propylene glycol makes it the most functional as an additive for use in combination with matrix material?
a) Propylene glycol + sorbital impart softness to product
b) Acts as a mold inhibator
c) Serves plasticizing for texture
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] All of the mentioned properties of propylene glycol make it the functional as an additive for use in combination with matrix material.

8. Statement 1: With respect to meat, the red portion contains a salt binder to cause tackiness at temperatures above 48 deg C.
Statement 2: The white portion + red portion form an integral mass having interface between layers.
a) True, False
b) True, True
c) False, False
d) False, True

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] With respect to meat, the red portion contains a salt binder to cause tackiness at temperatures above 48 deg C. The white portion + red portion form an integral mass having interface between layers.

9. The admixture of a semi moist animal food is subjected to a sub atmospheric pressure to _____
a) Prevent expansion of resulting plastic mass in the extruder
b) Enhancing expansion of resulting plastic mass in the extruder
c) Enhancing contraction of resulting plastic mass in the extruder
d) None of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The admixture of a semi moist animal food is subjected to a sub atmospheric pressure to prevent expansion of resulting plastic mass in the extruder.

10. Which of the following is an important criteria for a pet food to have storage stability?
a) Water activity is less than one
b) Both of the mentioned
c) High mold inhibitor
d) Neither of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Both of the mentioned is an important criteria for a pet food to have storage stability.

11. In a specified system, water activity is defined as the ratio of _____
a) Fugacity of water vapor to fugacity of pure water at the specified system temperature and 1 atmospheric pressure
b) Fugacity of pure water at the specified system temperature and 1 atmospheric pressure to fugacity of water vapor
c) Fugacity of pure water at the specified system temperature and 1 atmospheric pressure
d) Fugacity of water vapor

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] In a specified system, water activity is defined as the ratio of fugacity of water vapor to fugacity of pure water at the specified system temperature and 1 atmospheric pressure.

12. Which of the following is a property of semi-moist food?
a) Plastic, easily masticated
b) Do not produce sense of dryness
c) Less susceptible to fat oxidation
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] All of the mentioned are properties of semi moist food items.

Set 5

1. Celinium Sulphate is an exception of the solubility curve. When the temperature is increased, its solubility decreases.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Celinium Sulphate is an exception of the solubility curve. When the temperature is increased, its solubility decreases.

2. Which of the following is NOT an important criteria for crystal formation?
a) Caking characteristics of the crystal
b) Moisture content
c) Shape
d) None of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] All the mentioned factors are important criteria for the formation of crystals.

3. Statement 1: The solubility of NaCl increases with the increase in temperature.
Statement 2: Crystal formation is hindered by nucleation taking place on the crystal surface.
a) True, False
b) True, True
c) False, False
d) False, True

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The solubility of NaCl increases with the increase in temperature. Crystal formation is hindered by nucleation taking place on the crystal surface. It should take place from within.

4. Statement 1: Solid food items containing water molecules are more soluble as the temperature increases.
Statement 2: This growth takes place in steps.
a) True, False
b) True, True
c) False, False
d) False, True

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Solid food items containing water molecules are more soluble as the temperature increases. This growth takes place in steps.

5. Which of the following tells the significance of crystallization in food processing?
a) Consistency of food emulsions
b) A good feel of food inside the mouth
c) The physical stability of food
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Consistency of food emulsions, a good feel of food inside the mouth and the physical stability of food, all have a significant effect on the food processing.

6. Statement 1: Crystallization is both a mass and heat transfer operation.
Statement 2: The crystals and mother liquor obtained from a crystallizer are called _____
a) True, nucleation
b) False, solid residue
c) True, magma
d) False, crystal growth

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Crystallization is both a mass and heat transfer operation. The crystals and mother liquor obtained from a crystallizer are called magma.

7. Statement 1: Smaller particles dissolve as they’ve a larger surface area and larger particles grow.
Statement 2: The above process is called Ostwald ripening.
a) True, False
b) True, True
c) False, False
d) False, True

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Smaller particles dissolve as they’ve a larger surface area and larger particles grow. The above process is called Ostwald ripening.

8. The ratio of concentration of a super saturated solution to a saturated solution is denoted by α’ which is stated by the Kelvin equation. How is it related to the crystal size and interfacial tension between solid and liquid?
a) Directly, indirectly
b) Indirectly, directly
c) Directly, directly
d) Indirectly, indirectly

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] crystal size is indirectly related to α’ and interfacial tension between solid and liquid is directly related to α’.

9. Parameters affecting crystallization are –
a) Agitator speed
b) Population density
c) Purity of solution
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] All of the mentioned factors affect crystallization.

10. Which of the following facilitates crystallization?
a) Hot concentrated solution is cooled for crystals to form
b) Solution is concentrated by evaporation
c) Adiabatic evaporation and cooling
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] All of the mentioned ways are applicable for crystallization.

11. Statement 1: Batch crystallizers are used if the throughput is high.
Statement 2: The operating cost of batch crystallizers is high.
a) True, False
b) True, True
c) False, False
d) False, True

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Batch crystallizers are used if the throughput is low. The operating cost of batch crystallizers is high.

12. Statement 1: Batch crystallizers use the concept of cooling of hot solution/magma.
Statement 2: Control of particle size is poor in a batch crystallizer.
a) True, False
b) True, True
c) False, False
d) False, True

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Batch crystallizers use the concept of cooling of hot solution/magma. Control of particle size is poor in a batch crystallizer.

13. Statement 1: Batch crystallizers are used for jaggery.
Statement 2: Particle size is controlled by stirring and scraping the concentrate from the vessel for better heat transfer.
a) True, False
b) True, True
c) False, False
d) False, True

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Batch crystallizers are used for jaggery. Particle size is controlled by stirring and scraping the concentrate from the vessel for better heat transfer.

14. Scraped surface crystallizers can be used for viscous fluids up to 10000 cp.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Scraped surface crystallizers can be used for viscous fluids up to 10000 cp.

15. Which of the following is true about scraped surface crystallizers?
a) Expansion of capacity is easy
b) Can be used for wide range of temperature differences
c) Smaller size, less installation cost
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Scraped surface crystallizers are small in size and have a low installation cost. They can be used for wide range of temperature differences. Expansion of capacity is easy as more units can be conveniently added.

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