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Multiple choice question for engineering

Set 1

1. Statement 1: White wines do not contain the red pigments due to the lack of tannins and extracts.
Statement 2: Sulphur di oxide is added to crushed grapes to _____
a) True, retard growth of contaminating organisms
b) True, prevent escape of gases
c) False, both of the mentioned
d) False, neither of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] White wines do not contain the red pigments due to the lack of tannin and extracts. Sulphur di oxide is added to crush grapes to retard growth of contaminating organisms.

2. Pasteurization is applied in which of the following ways?
a) Flash pasteurization and returning to storage tank
b) Flash pasteurization and into the final bottle
c) Pasteurization by heating the filled and sealed bottle
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Pasteurization is applied in all of the mentioned ways.

3. The purpose of bulk pasteurization is _____
a) To stabilize the wine chemically and physically by coagulating certain heat coagulable colloids
b) To stabilize it microbiologically by destroying bacteria and yeasts
c) To hasten aging
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The purpose of bulk pasteurization is all of the mentioned reasons.

4. Statement 1: Packaged beer is pasteurized whereas barrelled beer is not.
Statement 2: All kinds of beers are pasteurized.
a) True, true
b) True, false
c) False, true
d) False, false

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Packaged beer is pasteurized whereas barrelled beer is not is the correct answer.

5. Advantage of cold pasteurization of alcohol over hot pasteurization?
a) Can be used for heat sensitive alcohols
b) Can be used to preserve the flavor and aroma of alcohol
c) Neither of the mentioned
d) Both of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Advantage of cold pasteurization of alcohol over hot pasteurization is both of the mentioned.

6. A vinegar containing 5 grams of acetic acid per 100 cubic centimeters is referred to as _____
a) 0.5 grain
b) 5 grain
c) 50 grain
d) 500 grain

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] A vinegar containing 5 grams of acetic acid per 100 cubic centimeters is referred to as 50 grain. Percentage times ten gives the strength of vinegar in grain. Hence 5*10=50.

7. Statement 1: Cider vinegar can be used with strength lesser than 4% of acetic acid.
Statement 2: Cider vinegar is the most popular type of vinegar used.
a) True, true
b) True, false
c) False, true
d) False, false

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Cider vinegar can be used with strength lesser than 4% of acetic acid. Cider vinegar is the most popular type of vinegar used, although it can be made from juices of most fruits.

8. Which of the following is included in vinegar fermentation?
a) Transform sugar into alcohol, by yeast
b) Change alcohol into acetic acid using vinegar bacteria
c) Both of the mentioned
d) Neither of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] In Vinegar fermentation, first, sugar is transformed into alcohol, by yeast. This is followed by changing alcohol into acetic acid using vinegar bacteria. The second process can only start after the first one has ended.

9. The best means of preventing growth of undesirable organisms in fermented juice is to _____
a) Add strong, unpasteurized vinegar after alcoholic fermentation is complete
b) Add sugar
c) Both of the mentioned
d) Neither of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The best means of preventing growth of undesirable organisms in fermented juice is to add strong, unpasteurized vinegar after alcoholic fermentation is complete.

10. Which of the following about vinegar making and manufacturing is true?
a) Vinegar bacteria grow in the fermented juice liquid and on the surface. They don’t always form a film on the surface
b) After acetic fermentation, vinegar should not be exposed to air as it may further oxidize to carbon dioxide and water
c) All storage tanks/ units of vinegar should be closed
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] All of the mentioned is true about vinegar making and manufacturing.

11. The rate of conversion of alcohol to acetic acid depends on _____
a) The activity of the organism
b) The amount of alcohol present and the amount of surface exposed per unit of volume
c) The temperature
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The rate of conversion of alcohol to acetic acid depends on all of the mentioned.

Set 2

1. Evaporation, desiccation and dehydration all mean the same thing.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Evaporation and desiccation denote the same thing. Dehydration has a slightly different meaning.

2. Statement 1: Dried foods from a dehydration unit have a better quality than sun dried components.
Statement 2: The color of dehydrated food under optimum conditions is superior to that by sun drying.
a) True, False
b) True, True
c) False, False
d) False, True

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Dried foods from a dehydration unit have a better quality than sun dried components. The color of sun dried food is superior to dehydrated food under optimum conditions.

3. Statement 1: In cooking quality, sun dried foods are better than dehydrated foods.
Statement 2: Sun dried animal flesh and fish can be highly acceptable.
a) True, False
b) True, True
c) False, False
d) False, True

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] In cooking quality, dehydrated foods are better than sun dried foods.

4. Which of the following is NOT an advantage of dehydration under controlled conditions over sun drying?
a) Cost
b) Time of drying
c) Quality of drying
d) None of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Dehydration under optimal conditions is more expensive than sun drying.

5. Which of the following is NOT a method of controlling biological forces on a food supply?
a) Packaging and chemical additives
b) Reducing free water content
c) Increasing osmotic pressure
d) None of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Packaging and chemical additives is a method of controlling chemical forces.

6. Which of the following is an advantage/use of dried food items?
a) Lesser cost and minimum labor required
b) Limited processing equipment and minimum food storage requirements
c) Reduction in distribution costs
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The entire mentioned are advantages/uses of dried food items.

7. Statement 1: The volume of gas at standard pressure increases _____ in volume for every _____ rise in temperature.
Statement 2: Each 15 deg C raise in temperature, _____ the holding capacity of air.
a) 1/273, 5 deg C, doubles
b) 273, 1 deg C, halves
c) 1/273, 1 deg C, doubles
d) 273, 5 deg C, halves

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The volume of gas at standard pressure increases 1/273 in volume for every 1 deg C rise in temperature. Each 15 deg C raise in temperature doubles the holding capacity of air.

8. Statement 1: Case hardening is controlled by _____ and _____
Statement 2: Drying time _____ rapidly as the final moisture content approaches its equilibrium value.
a) Increases, humidity, temperature
b) Decreases, humidity, concentration
c) Increases, temperature, concentration
d) Decreases, temperature, concentration

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Case hardening is controlled by humidity and temperature. Drying time increases rapidly as the final moisture content approaches its equilibrium value.

9. Statement 1: In drying, the vapor pressure of water in the solid is more than outside.
Statement 2: For wet bulb, the greater the velocity, the more rapid is the rate of drying.
a) True, False
b) True, True
c) False, False
d) False, True

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] In drying, the vapor pressure of water in the solid is more than outside. The difference in the two determines the rate at which water vapor is absorbed by air. For wet bulb, the greater the velocity, the more rapid is the rate of drying.

10. Statement 1: Foaming a liquid exposes enormous surface area for quick moisture removal and hence permits low drying temperatures.
Statement 2: During the constant drying time, the rate is determined by the rate at which water at the centre of the food diffuses outside.
a) True, False
b) True, True
c) False, False
d) False, True

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Foaming a liquid exposes enormous surface area for quick moisture removal and hence permits low drying temperatures. During the falling rate period drying time, the rate is determined by the rate at which water at the center of the food diffuses outside.

11. It is possible to maintain conditions of temperature and pressure whereby the physical state of food substrate can be maintained at a critical point for successful removal of water. This is called _____
a) Freeze dehydration
b) Freeze rehydration
c) Freezing
d) None of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] It is possible to maintain conditions of temperature and pressure whereby the physical state of food substrate can be maintained at a critical point for successful removal of water. This is called freeze dehydration and freeze drying.

12. Statement 1: At _____ and _____of mercury, water is at triple point.
Statement 2: For drying of meat, the last few percentage of water is removed by _____
a) -273 k, 76 mm, conventional methods of heating
b) 273 k, 14.7 mm, non-conventional methods of heating
c) 273 k, 14 mm, conventional methods of heating
d) -273 k, 14 mm, non-conventional methods of heating

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] At 273 k and 14.7 mm of mercury, water is at triple point. For drying of meat, the last few percentage of water is removed by non-conventional methods of heating.

13. Statement 1: Moisture vapor obtained from sublimation needs to be evacuated to keep the system below the critical pressure level.
Statement 2: Deterioration of muscle protein occurs in a salt solution above 5%.
a) True, False
b) True, True
c) False, False
d) False, True

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Moisture vapor obtained from sublimation needs to be evacuated to keep the system below the critical pressure level. Deterioration of muscle protein occurs in a salt solution above 5%.

14. With the _____ in temperature and _____ in ice percentage, the percentage of soluble solids _____
a) Increase, decrease, increases
b) Decrease, increase, decreases
c) Increase, decrease, decreases
d) Decrease, increase, increases

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] With the decrease in temperature, majority of water converts into ice, hence, the ice percentage increases. Since the percentage of soluble solids is with respect to water and the water content has decreased and the solid concentration is constant, the percentage of soluble solids increases.

15. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of freeze-dehydration?
a) Moisture loss by sublimation from boundary of ever receding ice crystal zone
b) Continuous process
c) Temperatures sufficiently low to prevent thawing used
d) None of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Freeze dehydration is a batch process.

Set 3

1. Which of the following physical qualities of storage food can be tested?
a) Odor measurement
b) Mechanical texture-meter
c) Both of the mentioned
d) Neither of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Both of the mentioned physical qualities of storage food can be tested.

2. Statement 1: Certain meats like beef and pork have a tendency to break apart when handled.
Statement 2: It is possible to predict the stability of food products from time-temperature data.
a) True, False
b) True, True
c) False, False
d) False, True

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Certain meats like beef and pork have a tendency to break apart when handled. It is possible to predict the stability of food products from time-temperature data.

3. Relations between time and temperature to determine the stability of food products is obtained by using which of the following data?
a) Measure of product quality
b) The number of days stored
c) The storage temperature
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] All of the mentioned shows the relations between time and temperature to determine the stability of food products.

4. Three samples were subjected to certain treatments. Which among the following is unfit for consumption?
a) Air cool, air hold
b) Nitrogen cold, nitrogen hold
c) Air cool, nitrogen hold
d) All the mentioned are fit for consumption

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] It is important to remove air from the storage container. Both the odor and flavor of the first container deteriorated.

5. Which among these two – vitamin retention test and sensory quality test, should be used as a basis for determining temperature or time of storage of food items which are intended as primary or important sources of thiamine or ascorbic acid?
a) Vitamin retention test
b) Sensory quality test
c) Either of the mentioned
d) Neither of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Vitamin retention test should be used as a basis for determining temperature or time of storage of food items which are intended as primary or important sources of thiamine or ascorbic acid. This is because these vitamins decreased faster than did either their color or palatability.

6. Results and objectives of an investigation are given in one of the points. Which could the correct answer be?
a) Need for broadening coverage so as to take account of geographical and seasonal variations in products
b) To determine how frozen food products behave under conditions of time and temperature
c) To discover and devise improvements in raw material selection, handling, processing and packaging
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] All of the mentioned are important criteria to be addressed and are plausible points that might have been covered.

7. Statement 1: Seasonal and regional variations have little effect on the sensitivity of a product to damage due to temperature elevation or variation.
Statement 2: Faulty processing/ packaging has a major effect in increasing the sensitivity of a product to damage.
a) True, False
b) True, True
c) False, False
d) False, True

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Seasonal and regional variations have little effect on the sensitivity of a product to damage due to temperature elevation or variation. Faulty processing/ packaging has a major effect in increasing the sensitivity of a product to damage.

8. Frozen products differ markedly in their susceptibility to damage. This sentence can be accounted for by the following- Orange juice deteriorates rapidly but peas lose their quality slowly.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Frozen products differ markedly in their susceptibility to damage. This sentence can be accounted for by the following- Orange juice deteriorates rapidly but peas lose their quality slowly, both of which are frozen products.

9. Damage once done to a frozen product with respect to temperature can be undone.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Damage once done to a frozen product with respect to temperature cannot be undone. A product damaged due to increase in temperature cannot be restored by decreasing its temperature again.

10. With respect to frozen products, a sample held for 1 week at -3 deg C will be indistinguishable from sample of the same product at -17 deg C for a year.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] With respect to frozen products, a sample held for 1 week at -3 deg C will be indistinguishable from sample of the same product at -17 deg C for a year. Every 5 degC that the temperature is increased, the speed of quality loss increases by 2-2.5 times.

Set 4

1. Statement 1: Time is an important parameter for the growth of spoilage organisms.
Statement 2: Temperature is an important parameter for the growth of spoilage organisms.
a) True, False
b) True, True
c) False, False
d) False, True

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Both, time and temperature are important parameters for the growth of spoilage organisms.

2. The length of storage of fruits and vegetables is a function of _____
a) Resistance to attack by microorganisms
b) Composition
c) Gases in the environment
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] All of the mentioned are factors which affect the length of storage of fruits and vegetables.

3. Statement 1: A harvested fruit contains many oxidative substrates required to perform respiration.
Statement 2: Different species of fruits have different patterns of respiration. This is called as _____
a) True, climacteric
b) True, botulism
c) False, climacteric
d) False, botulism

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] A harvested fruit contains many oxidative substrates required to perform respiration. Different species of fruits have different patterns of respiration. This is called as climacteric.

4. In the climacteric, the ratio of the highest peak to the minimum _____ with temperature.
a) Increases
b) Decreases
c) Stays constant
d) Exponentially varies

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] In the climacteric, the ratio of the highest peak to the minimum increases with temperature.

5. Statement 1: In the climacteric, the ratio of the highest peak to the minimum varies with temperature.
Statement 2: In the climacteric, the ratio of the highest peak to the minimum varies from fruit to fruit.
a) True, False
b) True, True
c) False, False
d) False, True

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] In the climacteric, the ratio of the highest peak to the minimum varies with temperature and varies from fruit to fruit.

6. Statement 1: After harvest, there is a decline in the uptake of oxygen.
Statement 2: After harvest, there is a sharp rise in the uptake of oxygen.
a) True, False
b) True, True
c) False, False
d) False, True

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] After harvest, there is a decline in the uptake of oxygen. This is followed by a sharp rise to a peak.

7. The slope of the climacteric varies with _____
a) Maturity
b) Species
c) Oxygen and carbon-di-oxide content of the storage chamber
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The slope of the climacteric varies with maturity, species and oxygen and carbon-di-oxide content of the storage chamber.

8. Statement 1: Ripening of fruits is accompanied with a lot of anabolic and catabolic reactions.
Statement 2: Certain fleshy roots, tubers and bulbs have a low metabolic activity and are dormant until there are environmentally favorable conditions for germination and growth.
a) True, False
b) True, True
c) False, False
d) False, True

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Ripening of fruits is accompanied with a lot of anabolic and catabolic reactions. Certain fleshy roots, tubers and bulbs have a low metabolic activity and are dormant until there are environmentally favorable conditions for germination and growth.

9. Fleshy fruits after _____ are _____
a) Ripening, consumed
b) Ripening, rotted
c) Consuming, rotted
d) None of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Fleshy fruits after ripening are consumed.

10. Statement 1: At low temperatures, the rate of respiration of harvested fruits and vegetables decreases.
Statement 2: Under conditions where respiration rate is retarded, changes in chlorophyll loss are also delayed.
a) True, False
b) True, True
c) False, False
d) False, True

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] At low temperatures, the rate of respiration of harvested fruits and vegetables decreases. Under conditions where respiration rate is retarded, changes in chlorophyll loss are also delayed.

11. Which is NOT a facet of cellular loci and messaging?
a) The biochemical control
b) Mechanics of quality change
c) The temperature and atmosphere
d) None of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] All of the mentioned are facets of cellular loci and messaging.

12. Statement 1: In cellular loci and messaging, the link is the mechanics of quality change.
Statement 2: In cellular loci and messaging, the machinery is the biochemical control.
a) True, False
b) True, True
c) False, False
d) False, True

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] In cellular loci and messaging, the machinery is the mechanics of quality change. In cellular loci and messaging, the link is the biochemical control.

13. In the biochemistry of plants, which of the statements hold wrong?
a) Ethylene plays an important role in promoting food ripening
b) Changes in membrane permeability causes metabolic shifts associated with ripening
c) Senescence aren’t always the reason for collapse of cellular machinery
d) None of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] None of the mentioned statements with respect to biochemistry of plants hold wrong.

14. Keeping in mind that texture changes take place after harvest, pulpy fruits become extremely hard after harvest.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Keeping in mind that texture changes take place after harvest, pulpy fruits become extremely soft after harvest. Whereas, vegetables such as beans harden on harvesting.

15. Statement 1: After harvest, _____ of fruits and vegetables undergoes change.
Statement 2: The _____ in pre-harvest and application of _____ to post-harvest can change the stress response in harvested commodities.
a) Texture, nutrients, minerals
b) Color, minerals, nutrients
c) Texture, minerals, nutrients
d) None of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] After harvest, both, texture and color of fruits and vegetables undergoes change. But the correct order of the second statement is- The nutrients, in pre-harvest and application of minerals to post-harvest can change the stress response in harvested commodities.

Set 5

1. Which of the following is a method to delay the onset of spoilage on storage?
a) Spray/dip in water/ wax formulations
b) Fumigation
c) Both of the mentioned
d) None of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Both of the mentioned are methods to delay the onset of spoilage on storage.

2. The reason why vegetables like green peas and beans are stored in deep fridge (approximately 0 degC) and not ordinary refrigeration is because freshly harvested vegetables themselves release a lot of heat and peas and beans evolve a lot of heat at low temperatures also.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The reason why vegetables like green peas and beans are stored in deep fridge (approximately 0 degC) and not ordinary refrigeration is because freshly harvested vegetables themselves release a lot of heat and peas and beans evolve a lot of heat at low temperatures also. Heat spoils vegetables.

3. Statement 1: At low temperatures, near the freezing point of water, the respiration rate decreases
Statement 2: Lemons last longer than bananas at the same relative humidity.
a) True, False
b) True, True
c) False, False
d) False, True

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] At low temperatures, near the freezing point of water, the respiration rate decreases. Lemons last longer than bananas at the same relative humidity.

4. Which of the following holds well as a reason for storage of food at low temperatures?
a) Respiration rate decreases
b) Growth of microbes decreases
c) Humidity is less
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] At lower temperatures, the humidity is less and hence the amount of dissolved oxygen in the air is lesser. Hence, the respiration rate decreases. All metabolic activities at low temperatures are also retarded. Hence, growth of microbes decreases.

5. Which of the following microorganism is popular for spoilage in fruits and vegetables?
a) Mesophile
b) Thermophile
c) Psychrophile
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] All of the mentioned microorganisms spoil fruits and vegetables.

6. Statement 1: Microorganism responsible for most organism pathogen in humans is thermophile.
Statement 2: Mesophiles have an optimum temperature growth below 10 deg C and psychrophiles have an optimum temperature growth at around 55 deg C.
a) True, False
b) True, True
c) False, False
d) False, True

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Microorganism responsible for most organism pathogen in humans is Mesophile. Its optimum temperature growth is at around 37 deg C. Psychrophiles have an optimum temperature growth below 10 deg C and thermophiles have an optimum temperature growth at around 55 deg C.

7. Which of the following is needed in order to establish a refrigeration requirement?
a) Initial temperature of food
b) Specific heat of food
c) Amount of food to be placed in a room
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The entire mentioned are needed in order to establish a refrigeration requirement.

8. The heat load for the storage of fruits and vegetables is calculated by multiplying the specific heat of the food by the number of degrees of the temperature that needs to be lowered divided by the weight of the food.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The heat load for the storage of fruits and vegetables is calculated by multiplying the specific heat of the food by the number of degrees of the temperature that needs to be lowered divided by the weight of the food.

9. Specific heat of food is calculated by the formula Specific heat = 0.008 (percentage water in food) + 0.2.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Specific heat of food is calculated by the formula Specific heat = 0.008 (percentage water in food) + 0.2.

10. Microorganisms causing spoilage of fresh meat, poultry, dairy products and eggs are mostly at 20 deg C.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Microorganisms causing spoilage of fresh meat, poultry, dairy products and eggs are mostly at 20 deg C.

11. Statement 1: Bacteria at a count of few low millions in milk are psychrotrophic.
Statement 2: Psychrotrophic bacteria can re contaminate milk after pasteurization.
a) True, False
b) True, True
c) False, False
d) False, True

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Bacteria at a count of few low millions in milk are psychrotrophic. Psychrotrophic bacteria can re contaminate milk after pasteurization.

12. Statement 1:_____ packaging helps increase shelf-life of milk.
Statement 2: Spoilage patterns for milk, eggs and meat is the same.
a) Septic, False
b) Aseptic, True
c) Aseptic, False
d) Septic, True

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Aseptic packaging helps increase shelf-life of milk. Spoilage patterns for milk, eggs and meat is the same.

13. Beef carcasses need to be made devoid of their body heat before they’re sent for retail.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Beef carcasses need to be made devoid of their body heat before they’re sent for retail.

14. Which of the following is true when it comes to meat carcass?
a) It is kept under ultraviolet rays such that mold formation doesn’t take place
b) It is kept at a relative humidity such that excessive weight loss doesn’t take place
c) Both of the mentioned
d) None of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Meat carcass is kept at a relative humidity such that excessive weight loss doesn’t take place and under ultraviolet rays such that mold formation doesn’t take place.

15. Albumen thickness is directly proportional to the temperature at which egg solidifies.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Thick albumen egg solidifies at a higher temperature than a thin albumen egg.