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Multiple choice question for engineering

Set 1

1. Which rock is also called secondary rock?
a) Igneous rock
b) Sedimentary rock
c) Metamorphic rock
d) No class of rock is termed so

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Sedimentary rocks are also called secondary rocks. This group includes a wide variety of rocks formed by accumulation, compaction and consolidation of sediments.

2. Which is the rock present in majority on the surface of earth?
a) Igneous rock
b) Sedimentary rock
c) Metamorphic rock
d) No class of rock in particular

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Sedimentary rocks are known to cover as much as 75 percent of the surface of the earth the rest being covered by the igneous rocks and the metamorphic rocks.

3. What are the mechanically formed sedimentary rocks also called?
a) Clastic rocks
b) Non-clastic rocks
c) Elite rocks
d) Mech rocks

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Sedimentary rocks are broadly grouped into three classes on the basis of their mode of formation: Mechanically formed or Clastic rocks: Organically formed rocks and chemically rocks which are called as Non-clastic rocks.

4. Detrital rocks refer to which type of sedimentary rocks?
a) Mechanically formed
b) Organically formed
c) Chemically formed
d) Residual

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] During the formation of the sedimentary rocks by mechanical method, original hard and coherent rock bodies are gradually broken down into smaller fragments. This disintegrated, loosened material is called detritus. Hence, clastic rocks are often also called as detrital rocks.

5. The important phenomenon that happens during deposition is
a) Settling
b) Erosion
c) Sorting
d) Blowing

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The most important phenomenon that happens to the sediments during their transport and deposition is sorting or grading according to their size, shape and density.

6. Deposition takes place in which conditions?
a) Ordinary pressure and temperature
b) High temperature and low pressure
c) High pressure and low temperature
d) High pressure and high temperature

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The sorting or grading occurs during the deposition stage of the formation of sedimentary rocks and the deposition happens in layers in most cases. Deposition generally takes place under ordinary pressure and temperature conditions.

7. The process not associated with diagenesis is
a) Sediments get gradually converted to cohesive material
b) Sediments get gradually converted to hard material
c) Decaying occurs basically
d) Might occur due to pressure or cementing material

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The process of transformation of loose sediments deposited in the settlement basins to solid cohesive rock masses either under pressure or because of cementation is collectively known as diagenesis.

8. The process which involves pressure exerted by the load is
a) Loading
b) Welding
c) Cementation
d) Unloading

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Welding is the process of compaction of the sediments accumulated in lower layers of a basin due to the pressure exerted by the load of the overlying sediments.

9. The process other than welding which is studied under diagenesis is
a) Co-welding
b) Cementation
c) Pressurising
d) Unloading

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Diagenesis is achieved by two methods. They are, welding and cementation. Cementation is the process by which loose grains or sediments in a settlement basin get held together by a binding material.

10. Rock salt may be formed by
a) Erosion
b) Winds
c) Continued evaporation
d) Continued precipitation

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Limestone may be formed by precipitation from carbonated water due to loss of carbon dioxide. Rock salt may be formed from sodium-chloride rich seawater merely by the process of continued evaporation.

11. Example of chemically formed sedimentary rocks is
a) Gypsum
b) Sandstone
c) Shale
d) Breccia

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Chemically formed rocks are of two types: precipitates and evaporites. Examples are limestones, rock salt, gypsum and anhydrite.

12. Pick the organically formed sedimentary rock.
a) Shale
b) Sandstone
c) Breccia
d) Limestone

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Limestones are the best examples of organically formed sedimentary rocks. Generally, the evidence of the source material gets obliterated from these rocks with the passage of time.

13. How is the degree of packing in welding related to load of overlying sediments?
a) Directly related
b) Inversely related
c) Not related at all
d) Totally independent

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Welding initially involves squeezing out of all or most of the water from in between the sediments, thus bringing them closer and closer and hence resulting in compaction. In fact the degree of packing of sediments in a sedimentary rock is directly proportional to the load of the overlying sediments.

14. Animal and vegetable life don’t contribute to the formation of sedimentary rocks. State true or false.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Animal and vegetable life, including microorganisms also contribute a fairly large supply of organic residues, which on gradual accumulation after the death of the source get compacted and turn into hard massive bodies of sedimentary rocks.

Set 2

1. The water which in a state of downward movement under gravity is
a) Groundwater
b) Vadose water
c) Connate water
d) Juvenile water

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Vadose water, which occurs from surface downwards up to a variable depth and is in a state of downward movement under the influence of gravity.

2. What is the process of movement downwards of vadose water called?
a) Infiltration
b) Filtration
c) Deposition
d) Down-flow

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The movement of vadose water is commonly described as infiltration. The thickness of soil and rock through which the vadose water infiltrates is called zone of aeration.

3. What is the upper surface of the zone saturation called?
a) Aquifer
b) Aquiclude
c) Water table
d) Aquifuge

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Water table is the name given to the upper surface of the zone of saturation and is of fundamental importance in the study of groundwater reservoirs.

4. Pick the wrong statement about groundwater.
a) It is turbid
b) It is odourless
c) It is free from pathogens
d) It is coloured

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Groundwater has a suitable composition in most cases and is free from turbidity, objectionable colours and pathogenic organisms requiring not much treatment.

5. Groundwater is not safer than other sources of water. State true or false.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The groundwater is relatively much safe from hazards of chemical, radiogenic and biological pollution to which surface water bodies are badly exposed.

6. What is the water obtained from precipitation called?
a) Meteoric water
b) Connate water
c) Juvenile water
d) Secondary water

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Meteoric water is the water derived from precipitation (rain and snow). Although bulk of rainwater or meltwater from snow and ice reaches the sea through surface flows or run off, a considerable part of precipitation gradually infiltrates into the ground.

7. Water present in rocks from the time of their deposition is
a) Meteoric water
b) Connate water
c) Juvenile water
d) Secondary water

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Connate water is the water present in the rocks right from the time of their deposition in an aqueous environment.

8. What is usually the nature of connate water?
a) Sweet
b) Odour
c) Salty
d) Odourless

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] This connate water may be encountered in sedimentary rocks like limestones, sandstones and gravels. It is commonly saline in nature, and is of no importance as a source for exploitable groundwater.

9. Juvenile water is also called
a) Meteoric water
b) Connate water
c) Magmatic water
d) Secondary water

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Juvenile water is also called magmatic water and is of only theoretical importance as far as water-supply schemes are concerned.

10. Some hot springs are derived from which water?
a) Meteoric water
b) Connate water
c) Juvenile water
d) Secondary water

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Juvenile water is the water formed in the cracks or crevices or pores of rocks due to condensation of steam given out from hot molten masses or magmas existing below the Earth’s surface. Some hot springs and geysers are clearly derived from juvenile water.

11. The vadose water which is lost to atmosphere by transpiration and evaporation is
a) Soil water
b) Intermediate water
c) Phreatic water
d) Water table

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The soil water is very important for the life and growth of the vegetable cover of the globe. It is lost to the atmosphere by transpiration and evaporation.

12. Which zone is zone of non-saturation among vadose water?
a) Soil water
b) Intermediate water
c) Phreatic water
d) Water table

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The intermediate vadose zone occurs immediately below the zone of soil water. It is in fact a zone of non-saturation: water in this zone is moving downwards under the influence of gravity.

13. Which zones are together called zone of aeration?
a) Soil water and intermediate zone
b) Intermediate zone and zone of capillary water
c) Zone of capillary water and phreatic water
d) Soil water and phreatic water

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The intermediate zone is generally of small thickness and may be even absent in many cases. The soil water and intermediate zones are sometimes collectively referred as zone of aeration.

14. The zone of water which occurs only in fine particle size is
a) Soil water
b) Intermediate water
c) Phreatic water
d) Zone of capillary water

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The zone of capillary water, called capillary fringe is present only in the solids and rocks of fine-sized particles underlying the vadose zone. It is absent in the coarse sediments.

15. Which vadose water zone is also called zone of saturation?
a) Soil water
b) Intermediate water
c) Phreatic water
d) Zone of capillary water

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The phreatic water zone, also called the zone of saturation lies below the capillary fringe, and it is the water held in this zone that is called groundwater in the real sense.

Set 3

1. Which is the structure with extremely fine rock mass?
a) Cataclastic structure
b) Schistose structure
c) Gneissose structure
d) Maculose structure

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Cataclastic structure is characterized by the development of extremely fine rock mass under the influence of severe crushing and shearing effects operating during metamorphism.

2. Give an example for a rock with cataclastic structure.
a) Schist
b) Marble
c) Slate
d) Augen gneiss

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The effect of shearing and crushing in the metamorphic rocks undergone metamorphism can be observed in rocks spread over wide areas. Rocks like crush breccia, mylonite and slate show this type of structure.

3. Structure involving flaky or rod-like structures is
a) Cataclastic structure
b) Schistose structure
c) Gneissose structure
d) Maculose structure

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The rock with schistose structure is made up of broadly parallel or sub-parallel layers or bands of flaky, platy or rod-like minerals making it very weak in the direction of parallelism.

4. The structure which also has flaky appearance and bands other than schistose is
a) Cataclastic structure
b) Schistose structure
c) Gneissose structure
d) Maculose structure

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] In gneissose structure. Bands or folia of platy and flaky minerals alternate with those of equidimensional and granular minerals.

5. Gneissose is indicative of advance degree of metamorphism. State true or false.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The gneissose texture is indicative of an advance degree of metamorphism under combined action of high temperature, high pressure and active participation of fluids.

6. Structure involving porphyroblasts is
a) Cataclastic structure
b) Schistose structure
c) Gneissose structure
d) Maculose structure

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Maculose structure is characterized by a spotted appearance of the rock that may be caused due to the formation of large-sized crystals called porphyroblasts within an otherwise fine grained rock.

7. The structure similar to maculose is
a) Cataclastic structure
b) Schistose structure
c) Augen structure
d) Maculose structure

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Augen structure is broadly similar to maculose type and is typical of metamorphic rocks in which the effects of crushing under pressure are clearly associated with recrystallization.

8. Which structure has lens-like shaped structure?
a) Cataclastic structure
b) Schistose structure
c) Augen structure
d) Maculose structure

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] In augen structure, some resistant minerals get deformed into thin, lenticular, lens like shapes giving a characteristic appearance to the rock.

9. The metamorphic rocks showing granulose structure is
a) Gneiss
b) Slate
c) Schist
d) Marble

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Granulose structure is a typical structure of metamorphic rocks like marble and quartzite and is characterized by an essentially granular character of the constituent minerals.

Set 4

1. The layered arrangement in sedimentary rocks is called
a) Mud cracks
b) Stratification
c) Rain prints
d) Ripple marks

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] By stratification is understood a layered arrangement in a sedimentary rock. This may be developed very prominently and can be seen from a distance of miles or in other cases may have to be ascertained after close examination of the rock.

2. The structure most prevalent to clastic rocks is
a) Nodular structure
b) Geode structure
c) Concretionary structure
d) Lamination

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The most prevalent structures of clastic group of sedimentary rocks are the ones belonging to mechanical structure which are, stratification, lamination, cross beddings, rain prints etc.

3. Lamination is structure formed in which type of sedimentary rocks?
a) Fine grained
b) Medium grained
c) Coarse grained
d) Nothing in particular

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Lamination is a characteristic structure of fine-grained sedimentary rocks like clays and shales.

4. Each layer of a laminated structure of sedimentary rock is called
a) Strata
b) Leaf
c) Lamina
d) Layer

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The individual layers of laminated structure are called lamiae and are distinguished commonly on the basis of difference in colour.

5. Which among the following is not a type of false bedding?
a) Columnar
b) Tabular
c) Lenticular
d) Wedge shaped

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The common types of false bedding are, tabular, lenticular, wedge shaped. Columnar is not a type of false bedding.

6. The type of false bedding where top and bottom surfaces are parallel is
a) Columnar
b) Tabular
c) Lenticular
d) Wedge shaped

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Tabular false bedding is a type of cross bedding in which the top and bottom surfaces of the deposit are essentially parallel, indicating its deposition in the same main channel.

7. Type of false bedding where the individual layers exist in well-defined sets of parallel layers is
a) Columnar
b) Tabular
c) Lenticular
d) Wedge shaped

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] In the case of wedge shaped cross bedding, the cross-bedding structure is highly complex: the individual layers exist in well-defined sets of parallel layers but these sets bear angular relationship to each other.

8. Type of bedding where sorting and arrangement has occurred based on grain size is
a) Cross bedding
b) Lamination
c) Graded bedding
d) Mud cracks

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] In some stratified rocks the component sediments in each layer appear to be characteristically sorted and arranged according to their grain size, the coarsest being placed at the bottom and the finest at the top.

9. Graded bedding occurs due to which phenomenon?
a) Wind settling
b) Sunlight
c) Gravitational settling
d) Loading

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Normally, perfectly graded beds are the result of sedimentation in bodies of standing water where factor of gravitative settling from a mixed load is predominant process.

10. Mud cracks are common in which type of sedimentary rocks?
a) Fine grained
b) Medium grained
c) Coarse grained
d) Not particular

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Mud cracks are common structural features of many fine-grained sedimentary rocks. The structure consists of polygonal or irregular cracks spread along the surface of an exposed sedimentary layer.

11. The bedding involving crater shaped depressions is
a) Mud cracks
b) Rain prints
c) Ripple marks
d) Sun cracks

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Rain prints are irregular, small crater-shaped depressions seen on fine-grained dried sediments.

12. Which of the following does not provide evidence of shallow water environment?
a) Lamination
b) Rain prints
c) Ripple marks
d) Mud cracks

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The mud cracks, rain prints and ripple marks when encountered in sedimentary formations are taken as confirmatory evidence of the formation having been deposited in a shallow water environment.

13. Which structure resembles fish eggs?
a) Pisolitic
b) Felsitic
c) Oolitic
d) Granitic

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The Oolitic structure is the structure where, the concretions are of the size of fish eggs; the rock appears as an assemblage of fish eggs.

14. Peanut structure is shown by
a) Sandstone
b) Limestone
c) Shale
d) Breccia

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The pisolitic structure is another type of concretionary structure where, the individual size of a concretion is like that of a peanut. Limestones and bauxite show both these structures.

Set 5

1. The study of earthquakes is called
a) Eathquakology
b) Tremology
c) Seismology
d) Quakegraphy

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The science dealing with the study of earthquake in all their aspects is called seismology. It is interdisciplinary science, which is partly geology and partly physics.

2. The point of origin of an earthquake below the earth’s surface is called
a) Isocentre
b) Isopoint
c) Focus
d) Epicentre

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The place or point of origin of an earthquake below the surface of the earth is termed as its focus or hypocenter. It may lie from a few hundred meters to hundreds of kilometres below the surface.

3. The point vertically above the focus is
a) Epicenter
b) Isocenter
c) Epivector
d) Isovector

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The point or place on the surface vertically above the focus of a particular earthquake is termed as its epicentre.

4. What is the location of maximum damage caused due to an earthquake?
a) Focus
b) Epicenter
c) 100 km from epicenter
d) Same everywhere

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The epicenter is that place on the surface of the earth where the vibrations from a particular earthquake reach first of all. It is often the location of maximum damage in that event.

5. What is maximum depth of focus observed till date?
a) 100 km
b) 500 km
c) 700 km
d) 1000 km

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] As regards the distance from epicenter to focus, or depth of focus, it has been observed from the study of seismic records that no earthquake with a focus deeper than 700 km has been recorded so far.

6. The seismic waves which are longitudinal
a) Primary waves
b) Secondary waves
c) Rayleigh waves
d) Love waves

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The P-waves are also called the primary waves, push and pull waves, longitudinal waves and compressional waves. These are the fastest of the seismic waves and are longitudinal in character.

7. The seismic waves which are also called transverse waves are
a) S-waves
b) P-waves
c) Rayleigh waves
d) Love waves

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The S-waves are also called secondary waves, the shear waves, the transverse waves or the distortional waves. These waves are transverse in character, like the light waves.

8. Which waves have helped geologists understand the nature of the earth’s core?
a) P-waves
b) S-waves
c) Rayleigh waves
d) Love waves

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The S-waves would not propagate through a liquid medium at all. This is a proven fact with S-waves and has helped geologists a lot in understanding the nature of the core of the earth.

9. What are the P and S waves collectively called as?
a) Group waves
b) Combined waves
c) Body waves
d) Duel waves

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The P and S-waves are sometimes collectively referred as body waves because they travel deep into the body of the Earth before re-emerging on the surface.

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