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Multiple choice question for engineering

Set 1

1. The nature of sedimentary rock that can undergo some irregular jointing is
a) Plastic in nature
b) Non-plastic in nature
c) Rich in moisture
d) Plastic in nature and rich in moisture

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Sedimentary rocks especially those of plastic nature and rich in moisture in the initial stage (clays, shales, limestones, dolomites etc.) undergo some contraction on drying up which might have resulted into irregular jointing.

2. Contraction or shrinkage is the cause of which joints?
a) Radial joints
b) Vertical joints
c) Sheet joints
d) Mural joints

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] During the formation of igneous rocks, tensile forces are developed in them due to cooling and the force is strong enough to cause joints. Such contraction or shrinkage is generally, accepted to be the cause of the vertical type of joints in granites and the so well -known columnar joints of basalts and other effusive rocks.

3. A single theory is enough to explain origin of all types of joints. State true or false.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Joints are caused in different rocks due to different reasons. No single theory can explain origin of all types of joints.

4. The wide range of temperature which vary in arid climate is
a) -10° to 100° C
b) 10° to 80° C
c) -50° to 60°C
d) 50° to 60° C

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Repeated expansion and contraction is characteristic of regions with dry hot (arid) climates where day and night temperatures on the one hand and summer and winter temperatures on the other hand vary within a very wide range of -50° to 60° C.

5. Removal of overburden causes
a) Expansion
b) Contraction
c) Shrinkage
d) Rise

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Removal of overburden due to weathering or other processes of rock wasting may also cause expansion of the underlying rocks due to unloading. The previously loaded rocks get relaxed with the release of the forces.

6. Sheet joints in sedimentary rocks are attributed to
a) Erosional loading
b) Erosional unloading
c) Weathering loading
d) Weathering unloading

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The sheet joints of sedimentary rocks and other rocks are attributed by many to the process of erosional unloading through geological ages.

7. What kind of impact do the joints have on activities of engineering?
a) Positive
b) Negative
c) No impact
d) Positive and negative

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Joints affect the properties of rocks both in a negative as well as positive manner with respect to the activities of a professional civil and mining engineer.

8. What is/are related to jointed rocks?
a) Earthquakes
b) Landslides
c) Slope failures
d) Landslides and slope failures

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Many landslides and slope failures are directly related to the jointed nature of the rocks. This is due to instability of rocks in hilly regions and the jointed rocks get easily lubricated in presence of moisture and start sliding or falling from their places.

9. First step of treatment of joints is
a) Grouting
b) Filling with chemicals
c) Detailed investigation
d) Installing devices

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Treating the negative qualities of rocks due to joints will differ in different projects. The first requirement in all cases is, however, detailed investigations to establish full characteristics of the joints.

10. What has to be located during investigation with great care?
a) Macro joints
b) Fissures
c) Micro joints
d) Macro joints and micro joints

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Great care has to be exercised in locating the presence, distribution patterns and magnitude of micro joints that are typical of many rocks. Such joints, if left unnoticed and untreated, may widen after the construction of the project and endanger its stability.

11. What is a positive effect of joints?
a) Instability in slopes
b) Groundwater
c) Oil reserves
d) Groundwater and oil reserves

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] As regards the positive effects of joints in rocks, these are greatly sought after in the exploration for groundwater and oil reserves in a given area. Only a well-jointed and porous rock can form a good aquifer or a good oil and gas reservoir.

12. Mineralisation takes place in jointed rocks. State true or false.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Mineralisation with economically valuable minerals from hydrothermal solutions takes place in jointed rocks and fissures, which are formed due to widening of joints.

Set 2

1. What is the mineral which contains a metallic element which can be economically exploited called?
a) Ore mineral
b) Metallic mineral
c) Eco-ore
d) Eco-mineral

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Ore mineral is defined as a mineral which contains a metallic element in a quantity that can be exploited and extracted for use at an economical cost.

2. The definition of ore is dependent on
a) Quantity
b) Size
c) Colour
d) Quality

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Natural concentration of an ore mineral in a massive rock body is defined as an ore deposit. Hence the definition of an ore deposit is also size dependent.

3. The non-metallic minerals associated with ore minerals are called
a) Non-metallic minerals
b) Metallic minerals
c) Gangue minerals
d) Flux minerals

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] A few non-metallic minerals are often found associated with an ore-mineral. These have be separated from the ore before the same is processed for extraction of the metal. These associated minerals are called gangue minerals.

4. How many types of rocks are there on the basis of time of formation?
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] On the basis of their time of formation relative to the host rock, the ore deposits are divided into two groups: syngenetic and epigenetic.

5. The deposits that have formed simultaneously with the enclosing rock are called
a) Syngenetic
b) Epigenetic
c) Syncgenetic
d) Sinclogenetic

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Syngenetic deposits are such deposits that have formed simultaneously with the enclosing rock. These are either of igneous or of sedimentary types.

6. Deposits that were formed subsequent to the formation of the host rocks are called
a) Syngenetic
b) Epigenetic
c) Syncgenetic
d) Sinclogenetic

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Epigenetic deposits are those deposits that were formed subsequent to the formation of the host rock. Epigenetic deposits of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic types are known.

7. The deposits occurring close to the roofs of magmatic masses
a) Magmatic deposits
b) Pegmatite deposits
c) Hydrothermal deposits
d) Metasomatic

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Pegmatite deposits are sometimes classified as a distinct group of magmatic deposits formed towards the end of crystallization process and such necessarily occurring close to the roofs of magmatic masses.

8. Which of the following is not an essential condition for hydrothermal deposits?
a) Highly active fluids
b) Highly enriched fluids
c) Highly inactive fluids
d) Suitable pathways

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The three essential conditions for the formation of hydrothermal deposits are: highly active and enriched fluids, suitable pathways for their migration through the rocks, and suitable physic-chemical environment for their deposition to take place.

9. Type of veins which are bodies of tubular shape in pre-existing fissures
a) Fissure-veins
b) Ladder-veins
c) Gash-veins
d) Stock works

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Fissure-veins may be defined as mineral bodies of elongated or tabular shape deposited in pre-existing fissures. The original fissures may be parallel or intersecting, radial or fan-shaped in pattern and that is also the shape of the resulting ore bodies.

10. The type of vein commonly found in igneous rocks is
a) Fissure-veins
b) Ladder-veins
c) Gash-veins
d) Stock works

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Ladder-veins are commonly found in igneous rocks such as dykes and similar bodies and consist of transverse, roughly regularly spaced fractures that are filled with deposits of economic minerals.

11. Gash-veins are generally found in
a) Silicate minerals
b) Felspar minerals
c) Metallic minerals
d) Carbonate minerals

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Gash-veins are narrow, sloping and thick-bodies deposits of minerals deposited in solution-fissures or cracks of the host rock which is generally a carbonate rock like limestone.

12. When gravity is the agent of placing of deposit, the deposit is called
a) Deluvial deposit
b) Aeolian deposit
c) Alluvial deposit
d) Beach placers

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Deluvial placers is the term used when gravity is the agency involved; such placers would be found along the foot hills and talus slopes.

13. The term used for the rock hydrothermal deposits that occur in veins of exceptionally small size, but in good number is
a) Fissure-veins
b) Ladder-veins
c) Gash-veins
d) Stock works

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The term, stock works, is used for hydrothermal deposits that occur in veins or fissures of exceptionally small size, but in good number, within a limited space, traversing the body of rock profusely.

14. Magmatic ore deposits do not commonly occur in forms of injective. State true or false.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Magmatic ore deposits commonly occur in the following forms: segregations, disseminations and injections.

Set 3

1. What are the undulations or bends developed in rocks called?
a) Faults
b) Joints
c) Folds
d) Uncomformity

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Folds may be defined as undulations or bends or curvatures developed in the rocks of the crust as a result of stresses to which these rocks have been subjected from time to time in the past history of the Earth.

2. Folds develop in which type of rock
a) Igneous rock
b) Sedimentary rock
c) Metamorphic rock
d) Any type of rock

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The folds may develop in any type of rock and may be of any shape and flexures.

3. Which type of deformation is folding?
a) Brittle
b) Ductile
c) Tensile
d) Malleable

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] In general, folding is a ductile type of deformation experienced by the rocks compared to the brittle deformation where the rocks actually get broken and displaced when stressed.

4. Folding is ________ process
a) Very slow
b) Rapid
c) Quick
d) Moderate rate

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Folding is a very slow geological process and indicates an effort of the rocks in a particular environment to adjust themselves to the changing force fields operating on, within or around them.

5. Which among the following is not a part of fold?
a) Limbs
b) Hinge
c) Axis of fold
d) Height of fold

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Parts of a fold include, limbs, hinge, axis of a fold, plunge of a fold and crest & trough. Height of fold is not referred as its part.

6. The minimum number of limbs for a fold are
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] An individual fold will have a minimum of two limbs but when the folds occur in groups, as this is common, a middle limb will be common to two adjacent folds.

7. The point where the curvature is maximum is ________
a) Hinge
b) Axial surface
c) Nucleus
d) Fold point

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] In a folded layer, a point can be found where curvature is maximum and one limb ends and the other limb starts from that point. This is the hinge point.

8. When the plunge said to be zero, then the axis of the fold is said to be
a) Vertical
b) Horizontal
c) Inclined at 60° to the horizontal
d) Inclined at 60° to its normal.

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Axis is a line and plunge is the angle which the line makes with a horizontal. A fold having a horizontal axis will obviously have a zero plunge.

9. The crest and trough may or may not coincide with the axis. State true or false.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The line running through the highest points in an uparched fold defines the crest and similarly the line running through the lowest point in a downarched fold makes its trough. The crest and trough may or may not coincide with the axis of the fold.

10. What is axis of a fold?
a) Line drawn normal to the hinge line
b) Line drawn at 60° to hinge line
c) Line drawn parallel to hinge line
d) Line which doesn’t pass through hinge line.

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Axis of fold is defined as a line drawn parallel to the hinge line of a fold. In other words, line representing the intersection of the axial plane of a fold with any bed of the fold.

11. How is the plunge of a fold measured?
a) Direction
b) Degree
c) Depth
d) Both direction and degree

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The plunge is measured like dip of a bedding plane, both in terms of direction of plunge and degree of plunge.

12. An axial plane can be vertical, inclined or horizontal in nature. State true or false.
a) False
b) True

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] An axial plane is that imaginary plane that passes through all the points of maximum curvature in a folded sequence. It may be vertical, inclined or horizontal in nature.

13. Identify the part labelled “A” in the below figure.
engineering-geology-questions-answers-parts-fold-q13

a) Limb
b) Hinge
c) Axis of fold
d) Plunge

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Limbs are the sides or flanks of a fold. The part labelled “A” in the figure is a limb of fold.

14. Which of the following about axial plane is not true.
a) Axial plane is imaginary
b) Axial plane may be vertical, inclined or horizontal
c) Axial plane may be planar or non-planar
d) Axial plane need not pass through all points of maximum curvature in a folded sequence

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] An axial plane is defined as imaginary plane that passes through all the points of maximum curvature in a folded sequence. It may be vertical, inclined or horizontal. Also it can be either planar or non-planar.

Set 4

1. Which of the following is not true about a mineral?
a) Naturally occurring
b) Inorganic substance
c) Organic substance
d) Definite chemical composition

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] A mineral, is defined as, a naturally occurring inorganic solid substance that is characterized with a definite chemical composition and very often with a definite atomic structure.

2. Mineralogy deals with
a) Individual properties of minerals
b) Formation of minerals
c) More of occurrence
d) Properties, formation and occurrence

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Mineralogy is the branch of geology dealing the wide range of aspects related to minerals like, their individual properties, mode of occurrence and mode of formation.

3. A colour is produced due to
a) Reflection
b) Refraction
c) Absorption
d) Reflection and absorption

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] A particular colour is produced by reflection of some and absorption of other components of white light.

4. Colour of a mineral depends upon its?
a) Atomic structure
b) Outer surface
c) Composition
d) Atomic structure and composition

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] A mineral shows colour of that wavelength of the white light which is not absorbed by it by virtue of its composition and atomic structure.

5. Metallic minerals belong to which category with respect to colour?
a) Idiochromatic
b) Pseudochromatic
c) Allochromatic
d) Iridescence

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Idiochromatic having a characteristic, fairly constant colour related primarily to the composition of mineral. Metallic minerals belong to this category.

6. The type of mineral showing variable colour is
a) Idiochromatic
b) Allochromatic
c) Iridescence
d) Pseudochromatic

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Allochromatic minerals have a variable colour; the variety in colour is generally due to minute quantities of colouring impurities thoroughly dispersed in the mineral composition.

7. The type of mineral which shows set of colours in succession
a) Idiochromatic
b) Pseudochromatic
c) Allochromatic
d) Iridescence

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Pseudochromatic minerals show false colour. Such an effect generally happens when a mineral is rotated in hand; it is then seen to show a set colours in succession.

8. Allochromatic minerals may show more than two colours. State true or false.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Many non-metallic minerals like quartz, calcite, fluorine, tourmaline etc. may occur in more than two colours depending on the nature of impurities.

9. Pseudochromatism occurs due to
a) Reflection
b) Transmittance
c) Refraction
d) Simultaneous reflection and refraction

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Psuodochromatism is attributed to simultaneous reflection and refraction from the mineral surface due to minute inclusions of impurities in the mineral at different locations.

10. The phenomenon due to which a mineral shows rainbow colours is
a) Idiochromatism
b) Allochromatism
c) Iridescence
d) Pseudochromatism

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Some minerals may show rainbow colours either in their interior or on the exterior surface. This is called iridescence.

11. Play of colours is not desirable. State true or false.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Due to play of colours, the colours change in rapid succession on rotation and their effect is quite brilliant and appealing to the eye.

Set 5

1. The density range lies between 2.5 and 4.5 g/cc for
a) Metallic minerals
b) Non-metallic minerals
c) Metalloid minerals
d) Ore minerals

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The non-metallic minerals have low values of density, ranging between 2.5 and 4.5 g/cc, whereas metallic minerals and ores have densities as high as 20 g/cc.

2. Atoms of greater atomic radii show
a) Less density
b) Greater density
c) No difference
d) Doesn’t depend on atomic radii

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Minerals with atoms of greater atomic radii show less density values compared with those made of atoms of smaller atomic radii.

3. Form in which neither a crystal face nor a cleavage is seen is
a) Crystalline
b) Crystallized
c) Amorphous
d) Crystalline and crystallized

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Amorphous form is a form in which neither a crystal face nor a cleavage is seen. There is no evidence of orderly arrangement of atoms in this form.

4. The minerals which develop electric charge upon heating are called
a) Pyro-electric minerals
b) Piezo-electric minerals
c) Paramagnetic minerals
d) Diamagnetic minerals

View Answer

Answer:a [Reason:] In some minerals an electric charge may be developed by heating. These are called pyroelectric minerals. Examples: Tourmaline, boracite, quartz etc.

5. The Phenomenon where, electric charge develops due to application of pressure is
a) Pyro-electric minerals
b) Piezo-electric minerals
c) Paramagnetic minerals
d) Diamagnetic minerals

View Answer

Answer: b Answer: In some minerals an electric charge is developed by applying pressure. This group is termed as piezo-electric. Examples: Tourmaline and quartz.

6. How many minerals are present in the scale of fusibility given by Von Kobell?
a) 3
b) 4
c) 5
d) 6

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] A scale of fusibility has been suggested by Von Kobell. It consists of six minerals arranged according to temperature of fusion. Stibnite, Natrolite, Alamandine, Actinolite, Orthoclase and Bronzite.

7. Specific gravity of mineral changes with temperature. State true or false.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Since temperature and pressure are both known to change volume of substance, it follows that density will also show a change when a mineral is subjected to elevated temperature or high pressures.

8. Which of the following minerals can scratch Topaz?
a) Corundum
b) Apatite
c) Gypsum
d) Quartz

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Only corundum can scratch topaz because, all the other minerals given have lesser Mohs number compared to topaz, whereas topaz as hardness number 8 and corundum has 9.

9. Streak colour and colour of the mineral are always same. State true or false.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] It follows that the colour of a mineral may not be the same as its streak. For identification, streak is relied upon more than the colour of the mineral.

10. Which of the following mineral shows phosphorescence?
a) Orthoclase
b) Calcite
c) Quartz
d) Galena

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Phosphorescence is similar to fluorescence in essential character but in this case light is emitted by mineral not during the act of exposure but after the substance is transferred rapidly to a dark place. Fluorite, quartz, willemite and diamond show this phenomenon.

11. Quartz shows which lustre?
a) Metallic
b) Vitreous
c) Pearly
d) Resinous

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Vitreous lustre is a type of lustre which is typical of glass, ice etc. Example: Quartz.

12. Which among the following shows silky lustre?
a) Quartz
b) Galena
c) Gypsum
d) Diamond

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Silky lustre is like the shine of pure silk. Example: Gypsum.

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