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Multiple choice question for engineering

Set 1

1. Granite belongs to which mode of occurrence of igneous rock?
a) Volcanic rocks
b) Plutonic
c) Hypabyssal
d) Volcanic and hypabyssal

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Granites may be defined as plutonic light coloured igneous rocks. These are among the most common igneous rocks.

2. The two most common mineral found in granites are
a) Diamond and mica
b) Mica and orthoclase
c) Quartz and felspar
d) Felspar and corundum

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Two most common and essential mineral constituents of granite are: Quartz and Felspar.

3. Which is the most important accessory mineral in granite?
a) Felspar
b) Quartz
c) Topaz
d) Mica

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Among the accessory minerals in granites, micas deserve the first mention. Both varieties are present in small proportions in most granites.

4. The texture of granite is
a) Equigranular
b) Directive
c) Inequigranular
d) Intergrowth

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Granites are generally coarse to medium grained, holocrystalline and equigranular rocks.

5. Syenites belong to which mode of occurrence?
a) Volcanic rocks
b) Plutonic
c) Hypabyssal
d) Concordant

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Syenites are defined as igneous, plutonic, even-grained rocks in which alkali-felspars are the chief constituent minerals.

6. State true or false. Syenites show similar textures of granites.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Syenites show textures broadly similar to those of granites, that is, they are coarse to medium-grained, holocrystalline in nature and exhibiting graphic, inter-growth or porphyiritic relationship among its constituents.

7. What is the usual colour of gabbro?
a) White
b) Yellow
c) Black
d) Blue

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Gabbros are usually found in black colour. Sometimes they are also found in other shades of dark grey and dark brown.

8. What is the mode of formation of gabbro?
a) Volcanic
b) Plutonic
c) Hypabyssal
d) Dykes

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Gabbros are coarse-grained plutonic rocks of basic character. Plagioclase felspars of lime-soda composition are the chief constituents of gabbros.

9. Pick the igneous rock whose mode of occurrence is volcanic.
a) Basalt
b) Granite
c) Gabbro
d) Syenite

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Basalts are volcanic igneous rocks formed by rapid cooling from lava flows from volcanoes either over the surface or under water on oceanic floors.

10. What can be said about the grain size of pegmatite?
a) Fine grained
b) Medium grained
c) Fine to medium grained
d) Coarse grained

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Pegmatites are exceptionally coarse-grained igneous rocks formed from hydrothermal solutions emanating from magmas that get cooled and crystallized in cavities and cracks around magmatic intrusions.

11. Pick the rock which is not volcanic in terms of mode of occurrence.
a) Granite
b) Basalt
c) Obsidian
d) Pumice

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Granite is of plutonic occurrence whereas the rest, viz., Basalt, Obsidian. Pumice are volcanic in occurrence.

12. The igneous rock with glassy texture is
a) Gabbro
b) Pumice
c) Obsidian
d) Pegmatite

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Obsidian is of glassy texture and it is distinct property of the igneous rock which makes it easier for its identification.

13. The igneous rock with very low specific gravity is
a) Granite
b) Pumice
c) Gabbro
d) Basalt

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Pumice has a low specific gravity whereas all the other igneous rocks have medium specific gravity. This property makes the igneous rock “pumice” very light. The main reason behind this is, pumice has many pores.

14. The igneous rock with flow texture is
a) Gabbro
b) Pumice
c) Rhyolite
d) Basalt

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Rhyolite is an igneous rock which exhibits the flow type of texture which is not found in other igneous rocks.

15. Pegmatites are formed due to displacement reactions. State true or false.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Pegmatites have formed due to replacement reactions between the hydrothermal solutions and the country rock through which these liquids happen to pass.

Set 2

1. Breccia is formed by which process?
a) Mechanical
b) Chemical
c) Organic
d) Residual

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Breccia is a mechanically formed sedimentary rock classed as rudite. It consists of angular fragments of heterogeneous composition.

2. The type of Breccia which is also called crush-breccia is
a) Basal Breccia
b) Faulted Breccia
c) Agglomeratic Breccia
d) Rudite Breccia

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Faults Breccia is also called crush-breccia. Such rocks are so named because they are made up of angular fragments that have been produced during the process of faulting.

3. The type of Breccia formed by sea water is called
a) Basal Breccia
b) Faulted Breccia
c) Agglomeratic Breccia
d) Rudite Breccia

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] This rock is formed by the sea waters advancing over a coastal region covered with fragments of chert and other similar rocks.

4. Conglomerates belong to which group of sedimentary rocks?
a) Rudaceous rocks
b) Argillaceous rocks
c) Arenaceous rocks
d) Any group

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Conglomerates are sedimentary rocks of clastic nature and also belong to rudaceous group.

5. Conglomerates consist of which shaped fragments mostly?
a) Angular
b) Sub-angular
c) Rounded
d) Edged

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The conglomerates consist mostly of rounded fragments of various sizes but generally above 2 mm, cemented together in clayey or ferruginous or mixed matrix.

6. Which among the following is not a type of conglomerate?
a) Basal
b) Glacial
c) Volcanic
d) Faulted

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Sometimes the conglomerates are distinguished on the basis of source of the gravels, as: Basal, glacial and volcanic conglomerates.

7. The sedimentary rock which is arenaceous in nature is
a) Conglomerate
b) Sandstone
c) Breccia
d) Shale

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Sandstones are mechanically formed sedimentary rocks of arenaceous group. These are mostly composed of sand grade particles that have been compacted and consolidated together in the form of beds in basins sedimentation.

8. Which is dominant mineral in sandstone?
a) Mica
b) Diamond
c) Quartz
d) Felspar

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Quartz is the most common mineral making the sandstones. In fact some varieties of sandstones are made entirely of quartz.

9. The texture of sandstone is
a) Fine-medium
b) Medium-coarse
c) Coarse
d) Fine-coarse

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Sandstones are, in general, medium to fine-medium grained in texture. The component grains show a great variation in their size, shape and arrangement in different varieties.

10. The colour of sandstone not found commonly is
a) Blue
b) Red
c) Brown
d) White

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Sandstones naturally occur in a variety of colours: red, brown, grey and white being the most common colours. The colour of sandstone depends on its composition, especially nature of the cementing material.

Set 3

1. The type of sandstone where cementing material is clay is
a) Siliceous sandstone
b) Calcareous sandstone
c) Argillaceous sandstone
d) Ferruginous sandstone

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Argillaceous sandstones are among the soft varieties of sandstone because the cementing material is clay that has not much inherent strength.

2. The term quartzite is associated with which type of sandstone?
a) Siliceous sandstone
b) Calcareous sandstone
c) Argillaceous sandstone
d) Ferruginous sandstone

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] When silica is the cementing material in the sandstones it is called siliceous sandstone. Sometimes the quality of the siliceous cement is so dense and uniform that a massive compact and homogeneous rock is formed. This is called quartzite.

3. Red Fort in India is built using which sedimentary rock?
a) Shale
b) White Sandstone
c) Red sandstone
d) Breccia

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The sandstones are most commonly used as materials of construction: building stones, pavement stones, road stones and also as a source material for concrete. The Red Fort of India is made up of red sandstones.

4. Shales are generally characterized with distinct
a) Cleavage
b) Fracture
c) Specific gravity
d) Parting

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Shale is a finely-grained sedimentary rock of argillaceous composition. Shales are generally characterized with a distinct fissility (parting) parallel to the bedding planes.

5. The mineralogical composition of shale is clearly understood. State true or false.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The exact mineralogical composition of shales is often difficult to ascertain because of the very fine size of the constituents.

6. The tendency of a rock to split into flat, shell-like fragments parallel to bedding is called
a) Cleavage
b) Fracture
c) Specific gravity
d) Fissility

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Shales are characterized with a distinct property of fissility, which may be defined as “the tendency of a rock to split into flat, shell-like fragments parallel to bedding”. The fissility of shales is partly primary and partly secondary in nature.

7. Which type of shale involves both clastic and non-clastic sources?
a) Residual shales
b) Transported shales
c) Hybrid shales
d) Quartz shales

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] In hybrid shales, materials derived both from clastic sources and non-clastic sources especially those from organic sources make up the rock.

8. Name the type of shale involving decay and decomposition.
a) Residual shales
b) Transported shales
c) Hybrid shales
d) Quartz shales

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Residual shales are formed from decay and decomposition of pre-existing rocks followed by compaction and consolidation of the particles in adjoining basins without much mixing.

9. Which sedimentary rock is present in majority on earth?
a) Shale
b) Sandstone
c) Breccia
d) Conglomerate

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Of all the sedimentary rocks occurring on the surface of the earth, shales are the most predominant forming 70-80 percent of this group. These rocks occur in massive formations and beds extending over several hundred kilometres in many cases.

10. Which among the following is not a use of shale?
a) Used in manufacture of bricks and tiles
b) Used as source of alumina
c) Used as paraffin
d) Used as precious gemstone

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Shales are variously used for manufacture of bricks and tiles. These are at place source of alumina, paraffin and oil.

Set 4

1. What is responsible for jointing of rocks?
a) Genesis
b) Forces acting on the rock
c) Genesis and various forces acting on the rock
d) Precipitation

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] We may find quite a large proportion of outcrop of any of these rocks practically free from joints at some places, but at other places the same type of rock may be heavily jointed, showing cracks of greater variety. Hence it is not only genesis of the rocks which responsible for these structures but also the forces acting on them.

2. Fractures along which there has been no relative displacement is called
a) Faults
b) Joints
c) Folds
d) Intrusions

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Joints are defined as divisional planes or fractures along which there has been no relative displacement.

3. State true or false. Joint is always accompanied by opening.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Joints may be open or closed. Open joints are those in which the blocks have been separated or opened up for small distances. In closed joints, there is no such separation.

4. The open joints are gradually enlarged due to
a) Rains
b) Winds
c) Weathering
d) Sunlight

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Open joints are those in which the blocks have been separated or opened up for small distances in a direction at right angles to the fracture surface. These may be gradually enlarged by weathering processes and develop fissures in the rocks.

5. The type of joint usually found is
a) Open joints
b) Close joints
c) Open and close joints
d) Faulted joints

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] There may be or may not be an opening up of blocks perpendicular to the joint planes. Hence the joints may be of open or close nature.

6. When the joints are prominent and extending for considerable depth they are called
a) Continuous joints
b) Discontinuous joints
c) Deep joints
d) Prominent joints

View Answer

Answers: a [Reason:] The joints which are quite prominent and extending for considerable depth and thickness are called as continuous joints.

7. What are the continuous joints also called?
a) Uniform joints
b) Normal joints
c) Prime joints
d) Master joints

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The continuous joints are also called often as master joints. Almost all joints are discontinuous in the strict sense because these disappear with depth in the crust of the earth.

8. The streaks or bands filling material in the rocks are called
a) Colour pigments
b) Resins
c) Veins
d) Pores

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] In many cases, open joints get filled up by solutions of secondary materials which crystallize or precipitate there forming thin or thick streaks or bands of the filling material. These are simply called veins.

9. When the thickness is greater than 20 cm, the veins area called
a) Thick veins
b) Fissure veins
c) Joint veins
d) Broad veins

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The thin or thick filling material in the joints of the rocks are called as veins when thin and when their thickness exceeds 20 cm they are called fissure veins.

10. Joints do not have dip and strike. State true or false.
a) False
b) True

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Joints have dip and strike, the dip being their inclination with the horizontal and the strike being the direction of intersection of a joint plane with a horizontal plane.

11. Pick the wrong statement.
a) A joint set is a group of joint surfaces
b) The surfaces trend in same direction
c) The surfaces have almost same dip
d) The joint surfaces do no trend in same direction

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] A joint set is a group of two or more joint surfaces trending in the same direction with almost the same dip.

12. Group of joint sets are called
a) Joint system
b) Joint group
c) Joint class
d) Joint collection

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] A joint system is a group of two or more joint sets. A joint set is a group of two or more joint surfaces trending in same direction with almost same dip.

Set 5

1. The type of metamorphism in which heat factor has played an important role is
a) Dynamic metamorphism
b) Thermal metamorphism
c) Thermodynamic metamorphism
d) Barometric metamorphism

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Thermal metamorphism is a general term including a variety of metamorphic processes in which the heat factor has played an important role.

2. Which type of metamorphism is common in rocks close to magmatic intrusions?
a) Contact metamorphism
b) Pyrometamorphism
c) Plutonic metamorphism
d) Dyke metamorphism

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Contact metamorphism is a common type of thermal observed in rocks existing close to the magmatic intrusions, injections and lava flows.

3. Type of metamorphism where part of country rock may get entrapped within magmatic body is
a) Contact metamorphism
b) Pyrometamorphism
c) Plutonic metamorphism
d) Dyke metamorphism

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Pyrometamorphism is a type of thermal metamorphism in which case a part of country rock may actually get entrapped within a magmatic body. The effects result due to intense localized heating.

4. Metamorphism involving both temperature and load is
a) Contact metamorphism
b) Pyrometamorphism
c) Plutonic metamorphism
d) Dyke metamorphism

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Plutonic metamorphism is a process of metamorphism that takes place due to equally important role of imposed loads and very high temperatures that become natural at those great depths.

5. Which kind of metamorphism is also called dislocation metamorphism?
a) Dynamic metamorphism
b) Thermal metamorphism
c) Thermodynamic metamorphism
d) Barometric metamorphism

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Dynamic metamorphism is also called clastic metamorphism, mechanical metamorphism or dislocation metamorphism and is brought about by conditions in which pressure factor plays a dominant role.

6. In which metamorphism there is almost no or little new mineral is formed?
a) Dynamic metamorphism
b) Thermal metamorphism
c) Thermodynamic metamorphism
d) Barometric metamorphism

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] In the dynamic metamorphism, there is no or very little formation of new minerals. These are the original textures and structures of the rocks that are partially or totally obliterated.

7. Most prevalent kind of metamorphism is
a) Dynamic metamorphism
b) Thermal metamorphism
c) Thermodynamic metamorphism
d) Barometric metamorphism

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Thermodynamic is also referred as regional metamorphism and may be considered as the most important as well as prevalent type of metamorphic processes.

8. Dynamothermal or thermodynamic metamorphism involves action of
a) Temperature
b) Pressure
c) Fluids
d) Temperature, pressure and fluids

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Thermodynamic metamorphism involves development of large-scale changes in the structural and chemical constitution of the pre-existing rocks under the combined action of pressure, temperature and fluids.

9. When the pressure acting on rock is of hydrostatic type then it is called
a) Pressure metamorphism
b) Load metamorphism
c) Secondary metamorphism
d) Clastic metamorphism

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Sometimes the pressure is of the type of hydrostatic type such as load of the overlying rocks. The process is then called load metamorphism.

10. The kind metamorphism which occurs in direction of mineralogical reconstitution is
a) Dynamic metamorphism
b) Thermal metamorphism
c) Thermodynamic metamorphism
d) Barometric metamorphism

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] In all types of thermal metamorphism the change is generally in the direction of mineralogical reconstitution. These processes may induce changes varying from simple baking effect to complete or nearly complete recrystallization of almost all original minerals.

11. The metamorphic process involving formation of new minerals by chemical replacement of pre-existing minerals is
a) Metagenesis
b) Holomorphism
c) Metasomatism
d) Homosomatism

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Metasomatism may be broadly defined as a metamorphic process involving essentially formation of new minerals by the mechanism of chemical replacement of pre-existing minerals under the influence of chemically active fluids.

12. Metasomatism occurs at which level and state?
a) Molecular level and solid state
b) Molecular level and liquid state
c) Atomic level and liquid state
d) Atomic level and solid state

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The metasomatism replacement of minerals takes place at atomic level and in solid state. The chemically active fluids may be provided by various ways.

13. When fluids in the gaseous form, the metasomatism is called
a) Hydrothermal
b) Pneumatolytic
c) Additive
d) Expulsive

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Pneumatolytic is the process of metasomatism where the fluids are in the form of gases or vapours.

14. The total volume of the rock is changed after metasomatism. State true or false.
a) True
b) False
Answer: b

View Answer

Explanation: A common fact observed in the case of metasomatism is that the total volume of the rock remains by and large unchanged after the process is completed.