Multiple choice question for engineering
1. What are the fractures along which there has been relative movement of blocks called?
Answer: c [Reason:] The definition of faults is “Those fractures along which there has been relative movement of the blocks past each other”. The entire process of development of fractures and displacement of the blocks against each other is termed as faulting.
2. What is the key word in the definition of fault?
c) Both fracture and movement
Answer: c [Reason:] The key words in the definition are fracture and movement. The exact significance of these key words must be clearly understood.
3. For a rock structure to be called fault, fracture has to happen but movement is not necessary. State true or false.
Answer: b [Reason:] There can be no fault if there is no fracture surface or zone and also evidence of some relative movement of the blocks against each other is a must for qualifying that fracture as a fault.
4. Faulting is a _________ process.
c) Both tectonic and non-tectonic
Answer: a [Reason:] Faulting is a major tectonic process of great geological importance. The geological history of the Earth bears innumerable events recording in the script of folding, faulting and jointing.
5. In which direction does displacement of blocks happen?
d) Any direction
Answer: d [Reason:] The displacement of blocks created in the rock due to faulting may take place in any direction: parallel to the fault surface; in an inclined manner or even rotational.
6. What is the angle that can be made by fault plane with the horizontal?
a) Acute angle only
b) Obtuse angle only
c) Right angle
d) Any angle
Answer: d [Reason:] Fault planes may be vertical, horizontal or inclined at any angle with the horizontal.
7. What is the planar surface of fracture along which relative displacement of bodies has taken place called?
a) Fault plane
b) Fold plane
c) Stress plane
d) Strain plane
Answer: a [Reason:] Fault plane is the planar surface of fracture along which relative displacement of the blocks takes place during the process of faulting. When it is not planar, the same surface is simply described as fault surface.
8. What is the angle of fault plane with the horizontal called?
Answer: c [Reason:] The dip of the fault is its inclination with the horizontal as measured in a vertical plane at right angles to the strike of the fault.
9. Parameter(s) considered for dip is
c) Direction and angle
d) Neither direction nor angle
Answer: c [Reason:] The dip is measured both in terms of direction of dip as well as angle of dip just as in the bedding plane of strata.
10. What is hade?
a) Inclination of fault with horizontal
b) Inclination of fault with vertical
c) Inclination of fault with any strata
d) Bearing of the fault with ground
Answer: b [Reason:] The hade of the fault is the angle which the fault makes with the vertical. In other words it is the complimentary to the dip angle.
11. What is the bearing of a line of intersection of fault plane and horizontal called?
d) Intersection line
Answer: b [Reason:] The strike of the fault is the bearing or geographical direction of a line obtained by intersection of a horizontal plane with the fault plane.
1. Which mineral group is abundantly found in the earth’s crust?
a) Mica group
b) Felspar group
c) Oxide group
d) Silicate group
Answer: b [Reason:] The felspars (The feldspars in American technology) are the most prominent group of minerals making more than fifty percent, by weight, crust of the Earth up to a depth of 30 km.
2. Felspar is found abundantly or in majority in which kind of rock?
a) Igneous rocks
b) Sedimentary rocks
c) Metamorphic rocks
d) Fossil rocks
Answer: a [Reason:] Felspars occur chiefly, in the igneous rocks (more than 60 percent) but also occur in good proportion in the metamorphic rocks. Felspars are also found in some sedimentary rocks like arkose and greywacks.
3. The chemical composition of the feldspar group is
Answer: d [Reason:] In chemical composition, felspars are chiefly aluminosilicates (also referred as alumosilicates) of Na, K and Ca with the following general formula, WZ4O8, in which W=Na, K, Ca and Ba and Z= Si and Al.
4. In the atomic structure, each oxygen atom is shared by how many tetrahedra?
Answer: b [Reason:] At atomic level, the felspars show a continuous three-dimensional network type of structure in which the SiO4 tetrahedra are linked at all the corners, each oxygen ion begin shared by two adjacent tetrahedral.
5. The crystallographic system shown by felspar group is
d) Monoclinic and triclinic
Answer: d [Reason:] The felspar group of minerals crystallise only in two crystallographic systems: Monoclinic and triclinic. Infact, the plagioclase division of felspars crystallizes only in triclinic system.
6. How many groups are the felspar minerals classified into, on the basis of chemical composition?
Answer: b [Reason:] Felspars are classified both on basis of their chemical composition and also on their mode of crystallization, Chemically, felspars fall into two main groups: the potash felspars and the soda lime felspars.
7. The felspar minerals are free from
b) Iron and manganese
d) Iron and magnesium
Answer: d [Reason:] The felspar group minerals are generally light in colour, because of the absence of Fe and Mg. The minerals have lower specific gravity (generally around 2.6), have doubly cleavage and a hardness varying between 6-6.5.
8. What is the chemical composition of Orthoclase?
a) K Al O8
b) Ca Al Si3O8
c) K Al Si3 O8
d) Ca Al O8
Answer: c [Reason:] Orthoclase mineral has the specific gravity around 2.56 to 2.58. Its chemical composition is K Al Si3 O8 . It is the most common and essential constituent of many igneous rocks, especially granite.
9. What is the distinguishing characteristic of microcline and orthoclase?
c) Chemical composition
Answer: b [Reason:] Both orthoclase and microcline have same colour but microcline gives white streak whereas, orthoclase does not give any streak. Chemical composition and hardness are almost same for both the minerals.
10. Which of the following is not true about plagioclase?
a) It is composed of K mainly
b) It is composed of either Na, Ca, or Al
c) It is of massive or crystalline structure
d) It gives 2 sets of cleavages
Answer: a [Reason:] Plagioclase is usually composed of either Na or Ca or Al or combination of them. K is present in orthoclase and not in plagioclase.
11. State true or false. Microcline can be easily distinguished from orthoclase.
Answer: b [Reason:] The microcline mineral is not easily distinguished in hand specimens from orthoclase except when perfectly crystallized.
1. Form of igneous rock where magma is injected and cooled along planes of host rocks is
a) Discordant bodies
b) Concordant bodies
c) Parallel bodies
d) Synchronous bodies
Answer: b [Reason:] All those intrusions in which the magma has been injected and cooled along or parallel to the structural planes of the host rocks are called concordant bodies.
2. Pick the type of concordant body among the following.
Answer: d [Reason:] The various types of concordant bodies are sills, phacoliths, laccoliths and lopoliths.
3. The type of concordant body whose thickness is much smaller than its length and width is
Answer: a [Reason:] It is typical of sills that their thickness is much small than their width and length. Moreover, this body commonly thins out or tapers along its outer margins.
4. The upper and lower margins of sills are relatively
a) Coarser grain size
b) Medium grain size
c) Finer grain size
d) Can be of any size
Answer: c [Reason:] The upper and lower margins of sills commonly show a comparatively finer grain size than their interior portions.
5. Sills in length are restricted to hundreds of metres. State true or false.
Answer: b [Reason:] In length, sills may vary from a few centimetres to hundreds of meters. Minor and local projections from big sills may rise above into the overlying strata.
6. Most common rocks composing the sills are
Answer: c [Reason:] The most common rocks composing the sills are intermediate and basic igneous rocks like syenites and gabbros. They may show aphinitic and porphyritic textures.
7. The small sized intrusives that occupy bends in the folds are called
Answer: d [Reason:] Phacoliths are concordant, small sized intrusions that occupy positions in the troughs and crests of bends called folds.
8. The concordant bodies associated with structural basins is
Answer: b [Reason:] Those igneous intrusions, which are associated with structural basins, that are sedimentary beds inclined towards a common centre, are termed as lopoliths. They may form huge bodies of consolidated magma.
9. The shape arch or dome is shown by which type of concordant body?
Answer: c [Reason:] Laccoliths are concordant intrusions due to which the invaded strata have been arched up or deformed into a dome. The igneous mass itself has a flat or concave base and a dome-shaped top.
10. What is the type of lava which leads to formation of laccolith?
c) Partially crystallized
d) Gaseous lava
Answer: a [Reason:] Laccoliths are formed when the magma being injected is considerably viscous so that it is unable to flow and spread for greater distances. Instead, it gets collected in the form of a heap about the orifice of eruption.
11. What is the type of laccolith in which fracture is formed?
d) Volcanic neck
Answer: c [Reason:] Extreme types of laccoliths are called bysmaliths and in these the overlying strata get ultimately fractured at the top of the dome because of continuous injections from below.
12. A sill is not considered to be a sill when two or more injections of different types of magma are involved. State true or false.
Answer: b [Reason:] Composite sills are the sills which result from two or more injections of different types of magma. Hence it cannot be told that it is not a sill, instead, it is a type of sill.
1. Pick the wrong statement about recumbent fold
a) It has the arch, which is zone of curvature
b) It has the shell, which is the inner zone, made up of mostly igneous rocks
c) It has the shell, which is the outer zone, made up of mostly sedimentary rocks
d) It has the core, which is the innermost zone, maybe made up of igneous rocks and metamorphic rocks
Answer: b [Reason:] The shell part of a recumbent, which is the outer zone, is mostly made up of sedimentary rocks. Hence the second statement is wrong regarding it.
2. The type of fold which is actually a group of folds is
a) Symmetrical folds
b) Asymmetrical folds
c) Isoclinal folds
d) Recumbent folds
Answer: c [Reason:] Isoclinal folds are group of folds in which all the axial planes are essentially parallel, meaning that all the component limbs are at equal amounts.
3. There are three types of folds classified on the basis of relative curvature of the outer and the inner arcs of a fold. State true or false.
Answer: a [Reason:] Ramsay divides all types of folds in three main classes on the basis of relative curvature of the outer and the inner arcs of a fold. They are Class 1, Class 2 and Class 3 folds.
4. In which class of folds, the Isogans converge inwards?
a) Class 1
b) Class 2
c) Class 3
d) Class 4
Answer: a [Reason:] Determination of dips may be made and then lines of equal dips are drawn. These are called Isogans. In Class 1 folds, the Isogans converge inwards.
5. Identify the class to which the fold below belongs to
a) Class 1
b) Class 2
c) Class 3
d) Class 4
Answer: b [Reason:] In class 2 folds, the isogans would run parallel to each other and hence the fold shown in the figure belongs class 2.
6. Which is the type of fold with similar degree of folding for indefinite depths?
a) Concentric fold
b) Similar fold
c) Conjugate fold
d) Uniform fold
Answer: b [Reason:] Similar folds are the folds in which degree of folding is observed to be similar for indefinite depths.
7. A fold can have differences in thickness due to erosional and depositional processes. State true or false.
Answer: b [Reason:] Supratenuous folds show differences in thickness at the crestal and the trough regions, not induced by folding process but essentially due to erosional and depositional processes operating in the folded regions.
8. Gentle folds have fold angle between
a) 10° to 90°
b) 90° to 170°
c) 170° to 180°
d) They don’t belong to this type
Answer: c [Reason:] For the classification of folds on the basis of fold angle, a fold is said to be gentle fold if the fold angle is between 170° to 180°.
9. Which is the class of fold with the degree of curvature greater on the outer arc compared to the inner arc?
a) Class 1
b) Class 2
c) Class 3
d) Class 4
Answer: c [Reason:] Class 3 folds are just the reverse of class 1 folds; in these folds, the degree of curvature as measured on the outer arc is greater than that of the inner arc.
10. The fold which is associated with the formation of mountains is
Answer: b [Reason:] Great importance is attached to the major depressions, the geosynclines, in the process of mountain building.
11. The anticlines signifying larger bending are called
Answer: c [Reason:] The anticlines which signify larger bending and uplifting of strata on sub-continental scales is expressed by the term Geanticlines.
12. The folds caused due to the drag effect are
d) Drag folds
Answer: d [Reason:] Drag folds derive their name from cause of origin; they develop due to drag effect suffered by the soft and ductile type material of the incompetent rock.
1. When a site is said to be sound, which of the following character is not desirable?
Answer: d [Reason:] Technically, the site should be as sound as possible: strong, impermeable and stable strong rocks at the site make the job of the designer much easy: he can evolve best designs.
2. Rocks are inherently which type of materials?
Answer: b [Reason:] Rocks are inherently anisotropic materials, showing variation in properties in different directions.
3. When is the strength of sound rock always greater?
a) When stresses are normal to bedding planes
b) When stresses are parallel to bedding planes
c) When stresses are inclined at 45° to bedding planes
d) When stresses are inclined at 60° to bedding planes
Answer: a [Reason:] The strength of sound, unfractured stratified rock is always greater when the stresses are acting normal to the bedding planes than if applied in other directions.
4. The most unfavourable strike direction is when the beds
a) Strike parallel to axis of dam and the dip is upstream
b) Strike parallel to axis of dam and the dip is downstream
c) Strike normal to axis of dam and the dip is downstream
d) Strike normal to axis of dam and the dip is upstream
Answer: b [Reason:] The most unfavourable strike direction is the one in which the beds strike parallel to the axis of the dam and the dip is downstream. It must be avoided as far as possible.
5. Which of the following is not a method for dam construction when a shear zone is encountered?
a) Construct on shear zone
b) Grouting the shear zones
c) Try and avoid the site as much as possible
d) Excavation and back filling
Answer: a [Reason:] Generally small scale fault zones and shear zones can be treated by grouting. But in the case of major shear zones, weak material would be excavated and the space backfilled with hard material like concrete up to the required depth.
6. In synclinal bends, dams placed on which part would run risk of leaking?
a) Upstream limb
b) Downstream limb
d) Sloping side
Answer: a [Reason:] In synclinal bends, dams placed on the upstream limbs would run the risk of leakage from beneath the dam.
7. What aspect of joint has to be thoroughly studied before construction of a dam?
a) Geometry of the joint
b) The depth of the joint
c) Nature of the joint
d) The texture of the rocks
Answer: d [Reason:] The geometry of joints, their intensity, nature and continuity with depth, all must be thoroughly established and their effects on the site rocks evaluated and remedial measures taken in advance.
8. Which joints have to be established with greater care?
a) Sheet joints
b) Mural joints
c) Micro joints
d) Columnar joints
Answer: c [Reason:] Occurrence of micro-joints has to be established with still greater care as such joint systems, if left untreated, could be source of many risks.
9. The fish culture in the stream is not affected by the construction of a dam. State true or false.
Answer: b [Reason:] Environmentally speaking, the fish culture in the stream is the first sector to suffer a major shock due to construction of a dam.
10. Knowing the lithology of the site is very important in terms of its safety and feasibility. State true or false.
Answer: a [Reason:] The single most important feature that must be known thoroughly at the site and all around and below the valley up to a reasonable depth is the Lithology, i.e., the types of the rocks that make the area.