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Multiple choice question for engineering

Set 1

1. What is the effect of faulting on outcrop?
a) Changes in the elevation of the ground
b) Omission of some strata where they are normally expected
c) Repetition of some strata in a given direction
d) Changes in elevation, omission of some strata, repetition of some strata

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Faulting is essentially a process of rupturing and displacement along the plane of rupture. Its effects may involve- changes in the elevation of the ground, omission of some strata where they are normally expected, repetition of some strata in a given direction and displacements and shifts in the continuity of the same rocks in certain regions.

2. What is the effect of strike faults to the strata?
a) Extension
b) Repetition
c) Omission
d) Repetition and repetition

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Strike faults are those, which are developed parallel to the strike of the outcrops. These faults produce, besides other changes, two pronounced effects on the outcrops repetition and omission of strata.

3. When the downthrow is against direction of the bed, it leads to
a) Omission
b) Repetition
c) Extension
d) Weakening

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Repetition of the strata occurs, when the downthrow is against the direction of the dip of the bed in which faulting has taken place.

4. When the downthrow is _____________ direction of the dip, it leads to omission.
a) Parallel to
b) Against
c) Inclined at certain angle
d) Doesn’t depend on downthrow

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Omission of the strata takes place in a strike fault when the downthrow is parallel to the direction of slip of the faulted bed.

5. What has to be studied at first to tell about the effects with certainty?
a) Aerial photographs
b) Globe
c) Geological maps
d) Topographical photographs

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] It is only after the study of geological maps that existence of faults at the first place and their effects on the rocks may get established with some certainty.

6. Dip fault leads to
a) Horizontal shift
b) Vertical shift
c) Inclined shift
d) Outburst

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] In dip faults which occur parallel to the dip of the outcrop, the most prominent effect observed after faulting and erosion of the upthrown block is horizontal shift between the two parts of the outcrop.

7. Which fault causes offset?
a) Normal fault
b) Reverse fault
c) Oblique fault
d) Dip fault

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Oblique faults cause an offset in the sequence, which is associated with either a gap or an overlap depending upon the downthrow direction.

8. Gap or overlap depends upon
a) Upthrow direction
b) Downthrow direction
c) Heave
d) Hade angle

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Oblique faults cause an offset in the sequence, which is associated with either a gap or an overlap depending upon the downthrow direction.

9. What will result in an offset with overlap?
a) Downthrow to left side
b) Upthrow to left side
c) Downthrow to right side
d) Upthrow to right side

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Oblique faults with downthrow to the left side result in an offset with an overlap.

10. What will result in an offset with gap?
a) Downthrow to left side
b) Upthrow to left side
c) Downthrow to right side
d) Upthrow to right side

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Oblique faults with downthrow to the right side result in an offset with a gap.

11. Effects of faults in different types of folded strata is same as dipping strata. State true or false.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The effects of faults on different types of folded sequence is broadly the same as in plainly dipping strata. But with changes in the altitude of the faults or that of rocks, quite complicated results may be seen.

12. What is the effect of faults on topography?
a) Fault gaps
b) Crust extension
c) Fault scarps
d) Crevices

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] One of the main effects of the faults on topography is that they very often result in the development of distinct types of steep slopes which are aptly called fault scarps.

13. The type of scarps not considered under study is
a) Fault scarps
b) Dip scarps
c) Fault-line scarps
d) Composite-fault scarps

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Three types of fault associated scarps are often recognized: fault scarps, fault-line scarps and composite-fault scarps.

14. The fault which is result of both fault scarps and fault-line scarps is
a) Compound-fault scarps
b) Composite-fault scarps
c) Dual-fault scarps
d) By-fault scarps

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] When a given slope is believed is believed to be the result of both of these processes, fault scarp and fault-line scarp, the scarp is of composite type, and is called composite-fault scarp.

15. The type of scarp involving erosion is
a) Fault scarp
b) Fault-line scarp
c) Composite-fault scarp
d) Dip-fault scarp

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] In the fault-line scarp, the relief is produced due to process of unequal erosion along the fault line with the passage of time.

Set 2

1. What kind of joints do the faulted rocks form?
a) Strong
b) Weak
c) Doesn’t change
d) Extended

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The faulted rocks will form weak foundations and abutments for dam, despite the fact that originally they might have been strong and impervious.

2. When do the faulted and shear zones become potential areas of further slip and slides?
a) Dry
b) Lubricated
c) Weathered
d) Heavy winds

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Once the fault zones, shear zones or fault surfaces become lubricated with water, they become potential areas for further slips and slides. They may create critical conditions.

3. Where should a site for a civil engineering project be located?
a) On faulted zone
b) On a folded strata
c) On a joint
d) Must be avoided to possible extent to be built on all three.

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] As far as possible the location of a civil engineering project must be avoided on a fault or a fold or a joint. But when there is no other choice, the same location can be treated with necessary methods and then the project can be implemented.

4. What is not considered about the shear zones?
a) Number
b) Size
c) Inclination
d) Appearance

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The number, size and inclination of the shear zones should be given top consideration.

5. Bhakra dam in India showed which occurrence?
a) Fault zones
b) Slickensides
c) Shear zones
d) Folds

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The embankment of the Bhakra dam in India showed occurrence of numerous shear zones in them; the site could not be changed because of other reasons; hence it was decided to treat the shear zones by extensive excavations of the shear zones and back filling with cement grouting.

6. What are faults associated with?
a) Volcanic activity
b) Precipitation
c) Earthquake
d) Folds

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Faults of any significance are always associated with earthquakes. The tectonic history of the area under consideration must be known thoroughly.

7. What is recommended to be introduced to the structures even on safe land?
a) Proper dimensioning
b) Proper planning
c) Use high quality materials
d) Factor safety

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Some factor of safety has to be introduced in the building even though the tectonic history indicates not movement of the surface or plate. It is always recommended to introduce factor of safety for high raised buildings or even buildings which are built on active seismic zones.

8. Studying tectonic history is basically like knowing
a) Frequency of earthquake
b) Effects
c) Frequency, effects and magnitude
d) Cost for recuperation

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Study of tectonic history would virtually mean obtaining information about frequency of the earthquakes as also their magnitude and effects that they have left from time to time on the rocks of the region.

9. Gouge and breccia don’t create any problems during construction. State true or false.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Faulting products like gouge and breccia create additional problems; the site has to be cleared of them or taken below to the sound bedrock.

Set 3

1. Which of the following doesn’t control aquifer behaviour?
a) Wind conditions
b) Nature of the rock
c) Structural disposition
d) Climate conditions like precipitation

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] As a storage reservoir, the aquifer behaviour is controlled by- the nature of the rock and its porosity, structural disposition, with regard to the recharge points or places, climate conditions like annual precipitation.

2. An aquifer can hold water _________ and the state of water is _________. Fill in the blanks.
a) Permanently – State of flow
b) Temporarily – State of flow
c) Permanent – State of stagnancy
d) Temporary – State of stagnancy

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] It must be remembered that an aquifer can hold water only temporarily, as the water is always in a state of flow in it. However, the rate of flow of water through an aquifer is very slow compared to surface waters.

3. Groundwater is a subordinate to surface water. State true or false.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The importance of groundwater in water supply system can hardly be over emphasized. It is in no way subordinate to that of surface waters.

4. The quantity of water that can be withdrawn annually and also the rate at which this withdrawal could be made without adversely affecting the inventory of the aquifer is called
a) Annual yield
b) Percent yield
c) Operational yield
d) Monthly yield

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The quantity of water that can be withdrawn annually and also the rate at which the withdrawal could be made without adversely affecting the inventory of the aquifer, therefore, determine what may be called operational yield.

5. When an aquifer is used to artificially recharge by making it pass through an intervening layer, the aquifer acts as
a) A cooling agent
b) An aerating agent
c) An odour agent
d) A filter plant

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] An aquifer may be made to serve as a filter plant when artificial recharge is made to pass through an intervening layer of rock, which acts as a natural filter.

6. When would the dam become irrelevant?
a) When the rocks are strong
b) When the rocks are impermeable
c) When the rocks are porous
d) When the rocks are weathered to a certain extent

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] A dam is built across a river primarily to store water in the form of a reservoir. The whole idea of a dam would become irrelevant if the foundations on which it is built are made of porous rocks or if a stretch of a reservoir rock is permeable.

7. Which quality of rock should be known properly for the foundations of dams, reservoirs etc.?
a) Colour knowledge
b) Geological
c) Hydrogeological
d) History of formation of rocks

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The position of water table and hydrogeological qualities of rocks forming foundations and abutments of dams and reservoirs must be known.

8. Groundwater is a source of trouble at which place?
a) Plains
b) Slopes
c) Rivers
d) Lakes

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Groundwater is a major source of trouble for the stability of slopes. Many slope failures, especially in hilly regions are due to direct or indirect involvement of groundwater.

9. An associated protection of rising water-table is the development of
a) Loss of nutrients
b) Loss of good quality of water
c) Salinity of water
d) Increase in turbidity

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] An associated trouble with rising water-table is the development of salinity of the soils. The rising groundwater may be rich in some undesirable salts that are left at or near the surface during its loss to atmosphere due to evaporation.

10. The root system of crops in water-logged areas get
a) Decomposed
b) Enriched with nutrients
c) Photosynthesised
d) Growth inhibited

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The root system of crops in water-logged areas gets decomposed. Large areas of land in Indian subcontinent are affected by water-logging.

11. The lubricating action of water is a positive action for slope rocks. State true or false.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Soil creep and solifluction are caused mainly due to groundwater. The lubricating action of water besides its negative effect on the strength parameters of rocks is the major cause in initiating massive landslides.

Set 4

1. The texture which the characteristics in between granitic and felsitic is
a) Secondary
b) Intermediate
c) Orthophyric
d) Transitional

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Orthophyric texture is another type of equigranular texture, which is in between the granitic and felsitic textures. The individual grains are fine in size but not microgranular.

2. What is the texture called when large-sized crystals are embedded in fine grained matrix?
a) Granitic texture
b) Poiklitic texture
c) Porphyritic texture
d) Directive texture

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The porphyritic texture is characterized by the presence of a few conspicuously large sized crystals (the phenocrysts) which are embedded in a fine-grained ground mass or matrix.

3. The cause which is not influencing the porphyritic texture is
a) Difference in molecular concentration
b) Change in physic-chemical conditions
c) Relative insolubility
d) Change in temperature

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Porphyritic texture may be caused by any one or more of the following factors: Difference in molecular concentration, change in physic-chemical conditions and relative insolubility.

4. What is the absolute reverse of porphyritic texture?
a) Poiklitic
b) Granitic
c) Felsitic
d) Ophitic

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Poikilitic texture is characterized with the presence of fine-grained crystals within the body of large sized crystals. In other words, it is just the reverse of the porphyritic textures.

5. What is the term when augite has inclusions of plagioclase felspar?
a) Poiklitic
b) Granitic
c) Felsitic
d) Ophitic

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] When the host mineral is identified as augite and the inclusions are of plagioclase felspars, the poiklitic texture is further distinguished as ophitic.

6. State true or false. The development of ophitic texture is completely understood.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The development of ophitic texture in rocks is yet incompletely understood. It may be due to operation of factors for porphyritic texture but in a different manner.

7. Which texture indicates flow of magma during its formation?
a) Equigranular
b) Directive
c) Intergrowth
d) Intergranular

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Those textures that indicate the result of flow of magma during the formation of rocks are known as directive textures.

8. Example for directive texture is
a) Tracheod
b) Granitic
c) Trachytic
d) Porphyritic

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Trachytic and Trachytoid textures are common examples of directive textures. The former is characteristic of certain felspar lavas and is recognised by a parallel arrangement of felspar; the latter is found in some syenites.

9. The texture which involves polygonal or trigonal spaces in rocks is
a) Directive texture
b) Intergrowth texture
c) Interstitial texture
d) Intergranular texture

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] In certain igneous rocks crystals formed at earlier stages may get so arranged that polygonal or trigonal spaces are left in between them. These spaces get filled subsequently during the process of rock formation by crystalline or glassy masses of other minerals.

10. What is it called when two or more minerals crystallize simultaneously in a limited space?
a) Directive texture
b) Intergrowth texture
c) Interstitial texture
d) Intergranular texture

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] During the formation of the igneous rocks, sometimes two or more minerals may crystallize out simultaneously in a limited space so that the resulting crystals are mixed up or intergrown. This type of mutual arrangement is expressed by the term intergrowth texture.

Set 5

1. A fault has how many walls?
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] In faults, the concept of walls is very important and must be understood very clearly. In a rock body, when a fracture takes place, it divided the rock into two parts or two blocks.

2. It is easy to locate older and major folds. State true or false.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] It may be easy to locate fault planes or fault surfaces in small scale and in rather recent faults. In older and especially major faults spreading over miles of area, however, extensive field work including drilling or subsurface investigations using geophysical methods may be required to determine these structures.

3. What is the block which suffer displacement in faulting called?
a) Walls
b) Parts
c) Sections
d) Blocks

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The blocks which suffer displacement and stand on either sides of the fracture are called as walls. Generally there exist two types of walls, hanging wall and foot wall.

4. The block which lies on the under surface of fault plane or zone is called
a) Hanging wall
b) Sub-wall
c) Foot wall
d) Lower wall

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The term foot wall is used for that faulted block which lies on the under surface of the fault plane or zone.

5. Who coined the terms “hanging wall” and “foot wall”?
a) Scientists
b) Geologists
c) Engineers
d) Miners

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Actually the terms “hanging wall” and “foot wall” have been coined by the miners: while traversing along a track excavated in fault plane, the wall under their feet would be foot wall whereas the other block would hang above their heads.

6. What is a small region with definite thickness and distinct composition having numerous closely placed parallel fractures called?
a) Shear zone
b) Fault zone
c) Fracture zone
d) Slikensides

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Fault zone is a small region with definite thickness and distinct composition having numerous closely placed parallel fractures within itself along which there have been clear displacements.

7. What is the nature of displacement in shear zone?
a) Ductile
b) Brittle
c) Malleable
d) Sonorous

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The displacements in shear zones are generally ductile in nature compared to brittle fracturing in simple faults or fault zones.

8. Identify the part labelled as “A” in the figure below.
engineering-geology-questions-answers-experienced-q8
a) Shear zones
b) Fracture zone
c) Fault zone
d) A-zone

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] We can observe numerous parallel placed fractured blocks in the shown region and this is possible in a fault zone. The picture depicts fault zone with distinct thickness and closely placed parallel fractures.

9. Slip is expressed in terms of
a) Millimetres
b) Metres
c) Kilometres
d) All the three

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The slip is defined as a relative displacement of any points that were formerly contiguous to each other, as measured along the fault plane. It may be expressed in millimetres, metres or even kilometres.

10. The type of slip not considered for study is
a) Strike slip
b) Dip slip
c) Hade slip
d) Oblique slip

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The slip is further distinguished on the basis of direction of displacement with respect to the fault as dip-slip, strike-slip or oblique slip. Hade slip is not one such.

11. What is the vertical component of dip separation called?
a) Offset
b) Throw
c) Heave
d) Strike gap

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Throw is the vertical component of the dip separation measured in the direction perpendicular to the strike of the fault in a vertical plane.