Multiple choice question for engineering
1. The classification which is not considered under study is
a) Spatial relationship
b) Number of joints
Answer: b [Reason:] Joints have been classified on the basis of spatial relationships, geometry and genesis.
2. The type of joint which can be measured and mapped easily is
a) Systematic joints
b) Non-systematic joints
c) Irregular joints
d) Homogenous joints
Answer: a [Reason:] Systematic joints show a distinct regularity in their occurrence which can be measured and mapped easily.
3. Example of systematic joints are
a) Columnar joints
b) Mural joints
c) Sheet joints
d) Columnar and mural joints
Answer: d [Reason:] Systematic joints occur in parallel or sub-parallel joint sets that are represented in the rocks at regular intervals. The columnar joints and the mural joints are examples of regular or systematic jointing.
4. How many groups are classified based on presence of regularities?
Answer: a [Reason:] All joints are divided into two main groups on the basis of presence or otherwise of some regularity in their occurrence.
5. Which type of rocks are classified based on geometry?
Answer: b [Reason:] In stratified rocks, joints are generally classified on the basis of relationship of their attitude with that of the rocks in which they occur.
6. How many types are further classified based on geometry?
Answer: c [Reason:] Under the classification based on geometry, three types are recognized: Strike joints, dip joints, oblique joints.
7. The type of joint not studied under the geometry as basis is
a) Strike joints
b) Dip joints
c) Hade joints
d) Oblique joints
Answer: c [Reason:] Only three types of joints are studied under the classification of joints on the basis of geometry; strike joints, dip joints and oblique joints. Hade joint is not a type of joint.
8. What is the other name for diagonal joints?
a) Dip joints
b) Strike joints
c) Sheet joints
d) Oblique joints
Answer: d [Reason:] Oblique joints are those joints where the strike of the joints is at any angle between the dip and the strike of the layers. These layers are also called diagonal joints when they occur midway between the dip and strike of the layers.
9. Joints parallel to bedding planes are called
a) Strike joints
b) Bedding joints
c) Dip joints
d) Oblique joints
Answer: b [Reason:] In stratified rocks, some joints ma develop essentially parallel to the bedding planes. These are simply referred as bedding planes.
10. Non-systematic joints occur at random in the rocks. State true or false.
Answer: a [Reason:] Non-systematic or irregular joints appear at random in the rocks and may have incompletely defined surfaces. In many cases these are related to the systematic joints in that these occur between them.
1. The process not contributing to clastic rocks is
Answer: b [Reason:] The mechanically formed sedimentary rocks undergo the processes like- weathering, erosion, transport, deposition and diagenesis. Oxidation is considered under to be a non-clastic cause.
2. What is the size required for a particle to be called gravel?
a) Greater than 1 mm
b) Lesser 1 mm
c) Greater than 2 mm
d) Lesser than 1 mm
Answer: c [Reason:] All sediments and clastic fragments of rocks above the size of 2 mm irrespective of their composition and shape are broadly termed as gravels.
3. What is not true about silts?
a) They are coarser than sand
b) They are finer than sand
c) They are further divided into fine, medium and fine silts
d) They are major constituents of shale
Answer: a [Reason:] Silts are very fine-sized particles of varying composition lying in the range 1/16 mm and 1/256 mm. they are further divided into three categories, fine, medium and coarse. The silts are the major constituents of rocks known as shales.
4. What is the average grain size of rudaceous rocks?
a) Greater than 1 mm
b) Lesser 1 mm
c) Greater than 2 mm
d) Lesser than 1 mm
Answer: c [Reason:] Rudites or rudaceous rocks include all coarse-grained rocks of heterogeneous composition. The average grain size of the constituents in rudites is greater than 2 mm.
5. Give an example for rudaceous rock.
Answer: a [Reason:] In rudaceous rocks gravels are held together in the form of a rock by a natural cementing material. Breccias and conglomerates are important examples of rudites.
6. Rudites are also called as
Answer: d [Reason:] Rudites or rudaceous rocks are also called as psephites. Rudites are made up of boulders, cobbles and pebbles collectively known as gravels.
7. The arenaceous rocks have the grain size equal to
Answer: b [Reason:] The arenites are also called as arenaceous rocks. These are made up of sediments of sand grade (2mm-1/16 mm).
8. An example for arenite would be
Answer: d [Reason:] In a particular rock, the sand grains of particular size range may be predominating giving rise to coarse, medium and fine arenites. Sandstones, greywackes and arkoses are common types of arenites.
9. Which of the following are finest grain sized?
a) Rudaceous rocks
b) Arenaceous rocks
c) Argillaceous rocks
Answer: c [Reason:] Argillaceous rocks are also called as lutites. Lutites may be defined as sedimentary rocks of the finest grain-size. They are made up of silt and clay grades.
10. A clastic rock might not have more than one grade. State true or false.
Answer: b [Reason:] Many a times a clastic rock may be made of sediments of more than one grade. It is the dominant grade that is taken into consideration while classifying the rock.
11. Non-detrital rocks refer to
a) Clastic rock
b) Non-clastic rock
c) Residual rock
d) None of the types
Answer: b [Reason:] The non-clastic rocks are also called non-detrital rocks. They are generally homogeneous in character, fine-grained in particle size and varying in chemical composition.
12. Pick the type of sedimentary not belonging to chemically formed rocks.
a) Oxide rocks
b) Carbonaceous rocks
c) Ferruginous deposits
d) Siliceous deposits
Answer: d [Reason:] The sedimentary rocks under the chemically formed deposits are Siliceous deposits, carbonate deposits, ferruginous, phosphatic and evaporites.
1. Pick the option which does not determine the texture of igneous rocks.
d) Arrangement of the constituents within the body of the rock
Answer: a [Reason:] The term texture is defined as the mutual relationship of different mineralogical constituents in a rock. It is determined by the size, shape and arrangement of these constituents within the body of the rock.
2. Which of the following is not a factor explaining texture?
a) Wind conditions
b) Degree of crystallization
Answer: a [Reason:] The following three factors will primarily define the type of texture in a given igneous rock: Degree of crystallization, Granularity and Fabric.
3. The degree of crystallization where the constituents are very fine or glassy are
Answer: b [Reason:] Holohyaline is the term used, when, all the constituents are very fine in size and glassy or non-crystalline in nature.
4. What is the term used when constituents are crystallized completely?
Answer: a [Reason:] Holocrystalline is the term used when all the constituent minerals are distinctly crystallized.
5. What is the range of grain size for coarse grained igneous rock?
a) Above 2 mm
b) Below 2 mm
c) Above 5 mm
d) Below 5 mm
Answer: c [Reason:] When the average grain size is above 5 mm; the constituent minerals are then easily identified with naked eye. These rocks are termed as coarse-grained rock.
6. Grain size 5mm to 1mm is termed as
a) Coarse grained
b) Intermediate grained
c) Fine grained
d) Medium grained
Answer: d [Reason:] When the average grain size lies between 5 mm to 1 mm it is termed as medium grained. Use of magnifying lens often becomes necessary for identifying all the constituent mineral components.
7. The grain size involving use of microscope is
a) Coarse grain
b) Medium grain
c) Fine grain
d) Very coarse grain
Answer: c [Reason:] When the average grain size is less than 1 mm it is termed as fine grain. In such rocks, identification of the constituent mineral grains is possible only with the help of microscope for which very thin rock sections have to be prepared.
8. What is the term given when some granules are exceptionally large and few are small?
a) Mixed granular
Answer: c [Reason:] The texture is termed as equigranular when all the component minerals are of approximately equal dimensions and as inequigranular when some minerals in the rock are exceptionally larger or smaller than the other.
9. Pick the wrong statement about granitic texture.
a) The constituents are coarse grained
b) The constituents are medium grained
c) The crystals show euhedral to subhedral outlines
d) The rock is microgranular
Answer: d [Reason:] In the granitic texture, the constituents are either all coarse grained or all medium grained and the crystals show euhedral to subhedral outlines.
10. The number of equigranular textures are
Answer: b [Reason:] All those textures in which majority of constituent crystals of a rock are broadly equal in size are described as equigranular textures. There are 3 types- Granitic, Felsitic and Orthophyric.
1. What is the thickness of the crust under the mountainous areas and in particular the Himalayas?
a) 50-55 km
b) 60-65 km
c) 70-75 km
d) 30-35 km
Answer : c [Reason:] It is believed that the thickness of the crust under the Himalayas is 70 to 75 km and under the Hindukush it is said to be 60 km thick.
2. The discontinuity which marks the lower boundary of the crust is
a) Crust-Mantle discontinuity
b) Oceanic discontinuity
c) SIAL layer
d) Mohorovicic discontinuity
Answer: d [Reason:] Mohorovicic discontinuity marks the lower boundary of the crust which is the first layer of the Earth.
3. The granite layer in the crust is also referred to as
Answer: a [Reason:] SIAL stands for Silicon and Aluminium and as per the name it is made up of the two elements and hence the name.
4. The density of the oceanic layer in the crust is said to be
a) 3.00 g/cc
b) 2.50 g/cc
c) 1.90 g/cc
d) 2.00 g/cc
Answer: a [Reason:] The oceanic crust is estimated to have a volume of 2.54*109 cc with an average density of 3.00 g/cc.
5. The depth at which the Mohorovicic discontinuity occurs is
a) 90-100 km
b) 50-60 km
c) 70-80 km
d) 30-40 km
Answer: d [Reason:] Mohorovicic discontinuity from seismic evidence is determined that it is approximately at a depth of 30-40 km.
6. What is the speed attained by the P-waves in the C-layer under the Continental crust?
a) 6 to 7.6 km/sec
b) 3 to 4 km/sec
c) 5 to 6.3 km/sec
d) 1.8 to 2.5 km/sec
Answer: a [Reason:] The C-layer is the lowermost layer of the continental crust and here the P-waves attain velocity as high as 6 to 7.6 km/sec.
7. The layer under the continental crust with the density of 2.4 to 2.6 g/cc
Answer: b [Reason:] The Middle layer or B-layer of the continental crust is relatively dense compared to A-layer and the density is said to be 2.4 to 2.6 g/cc.
8. The expansion of SIMA is
a) Silicon and Manganese
b) Silicon and Magnesium
c) Strontium and Manganese
d) Strontium and Magnesium
Explanation: Silicon and Magnesium. The C-layer under the continental crust is rich in Silicon and Magnesium and hence the layer is also sometimes called SIMA.
9. The oceanic layer is the extension of C-layer of the continental crust and A and B-layer are mostly absent. State whether true or false.
Answer: a [Reason:] The oceanic crust is the extension of C-layer of the continental crust that makes the top layer of the oceans in most cases, A and B layers being practically absent from there.
10. The least dense layer among the layers under the continental crust is
Answer: a [Reason:] The A or the upper layer is between 2 to 10 km thick and is of low density, 2.00 g/cc.
11. The area not considered under the crust is
a) Mountainous area
b) Continental area
c) Oceanic area
d) Glacial area
Answer: d [Reason:] The first the options, Mountainous, Continental and Oceanic areas are studied separately whereas Glacial area is not considered under study of the crust as such.
1. Which sedimentary rock is told to be the best kind of formation for groundwater?
Answer: c [Reason:] Gravels are classed among the best kind of formations to yield groundwater. But these too show a great variation in their water bearing properties depending on degree of assortment, packing and cementing of the grains.
2. The rock which shows great variation in water yielding capacity is
Answer: a [Reason:] Sandstones are the sedimentary rocks which show great variation in their water yielding capacity which is chiefly controlled by their texture and nature of the cementing material.
3. What is rated next to the gravels as water yielding materials?
Answer: b [Reason:] Sand beds or loosely packed sandstones are rated next to gravels as water yielding materials.
4. The porosity range of limestone is
a) 50 to 75%
b) 20 to 50%
c) 10 to 40%
d) 1 to 20%
Answer: d [Reason:] The porosity of limestones varies from 1 to 20%. Hydraulic conductivity in highly karsted limestones may be as high as 100 m/day or even more, to be classed among the extremely permeable rocks.
5. What are the qualities required for glacial deposits to make good aquifers?
a) Uniform size and rounded nature
b) Non-uniform and angular nature
c) Uniform size and angular nature
c) Non-uniform and rounded nature
Answer: a [Reason:] When the glacial deposits are made up of sediments of uniform size and rounded nature, they present with best quality. When sufficiently thick and extensive, these may be depended as reliable groundwater reservoirs.
6. State true or false. Igneous rocks are intrusive in nature.
Answer: b [Reason:] Igneous rocks are either intrusive or extrusive in nature. The intrusive igneous rocks are dense in texture with all the component minerals very closely crystallized. The extrusive rocks exhibit great variation in their water bearing properties.
7. The igneous rock rich in cavities is
Answer: b [Reason:] Basic volcanic rocks like basalts, are characterized by a greater gas content and high mobility at the time of eruption.
8. When can a surface become porous and permeable or water bearing?
b) Weathered and wet
c) Weathered and disintegrated
d) Disintegrated and wet
Answer: c [Reason:] In all igneous rocks, the surface zone when highly weathered and disintegrated may become quite porous and permeable and hence water-bearing.
9. The fractured and fissured metamorphic rock is similar in character to which igneous rock?
Answer: b [Reason:] The profusely fractured and fissured metamorphic rocks exhibit similar characters of that of the igneous rocks of plutonic nature. Groundwater will be found in the fractured zones without lateral and vertical continuity.
10. Metamorphic rocks which are inherently fractured and foliated may prove to be good aquifers. State true or false.
Answer: a [Reason:] Metamorphic rocks which are inherently fractured and foliated such as slates, schists, phyllites and often gneisses, may prove exceptionally good aquifers, in a broader sense.