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# Multiple choice question for engineering

## Set 1

1. What is the depth of focus in the shallow earthquakes?
a) Up to 100 km
b) Up to 200 km
c) Up to 60 km
d) Up to 150 km

Answer: c [Reason:] In the shallow earthquakes, depth of focus lies anywhere up to 60 km below the surface. A great majority of the earthquakes in the past had been of this type.

2. How many types on the basis of depth of focus are present?
a) 1
b) 3
c) 2
d) 4

Answer: b [Reason:] Three classes of earthquakes are recognized on the basis of depth of focus: shallow, intermediate and deep seated.

3. 60 – 300 km focus distance is seen in which type of earthquake?
a) Shallow earthquake
b) Intermediate earthquake
c) Deep seated earthquake
d) Tertiary earthquake

Answer: b [Reason:] The intermediate earthquakes originate between 60 and 300 km below the surface. These are rare in occurrence but their effects are felt over large areas.

4. The type of earthquake very rare in occurrence is
a) Shallow earthquake
b) Intermediate earthquake
c) Deep seated earthquake
d) Tertiary earthquake

Answer: c [Reason:] The deep seated earthquakes originate between 300 and 700 km, and are very rare phenomena.

5. Which class of earthquakes are most destructive?
a) Class A
b) Class B
c) Class D
d) Class E

Answer: a [Reason:] Earthquakes of class A are highly destructive whereas those of class E are not of any significance in relation to engineering structures.

6. How many types of earthquakes are classified based on cause of origin?
a) 1
b) 3
c) 4
d) 2

Answer: d [Reason:] Two broad classes of earthquakes distinguished on the basis of cause of origin. They are- tectonic earthquakes and non-tectonic earthquakes.

7. Which earthquake is caused due to faulting or relative displacements of blocks of the crust of the earth along rupture planes?
a) Tectonic earthquakes
b) Shallow earthquakes
c) Class-A earthquakes
d) Non-tectonic earthquakes

Answer: a [Reason:] Tectonic earthquakes are caused due to faulting or relative displacements of blocks of the crust of the earth along rupture planes. Most commonly, the major earthquakes are of tectonic origin.

8. Earthquakes originating due to volcanic eruptions or landslides are called
a) Tectonic earthquakes
b) Shallow earthquakes
c) Class-A earthquakes
d) Non-tectonic earthquakes

Answer: d [Reason:] Non-tectonic earthquakes owe their origin to causes distinctly different from faulting such as volcanic eruptions, atomic explosions or due to landslides and subsidence.

9. The number of classes of earthquakes based on magnitude of Ritcher scale are
a) 2
b) 5
c) 4
d) 6

Answer: b [Reason:] It is customary to mention earthquakes by its magnitude on Ritcher scale. Sometimes earthquakes are grouped into five classes on the basis of magnitude.

10. The shallow earthquakes occur very rare. State true or false.
a) True
b) False

Answer: b [Reason:] The shallow earthquakes are most commonly observed earthquakes till now whereas the deep seated earthquakes are very rare phenomena.

## Set 2

1. Which type of classification emphasises on appearance?
a) Based on direction of slip
b) Based on apparent movement
c) Based on mode of occurrence
d) Based on amount of dip of the fault

Answer: b [Reason:] The emphasis in the case of faults based on apparent movement as basis is only on appearance because actually it may require to be established which of the two parts, hanging wall and the foot wall, has moved during faulting and by how much.

2. Type of fault not considered under apparent movement as basis is
a) Normal fault
b) Reverse fault
c) Hinge fault
d) Strike fault

Answer: d [Reason:] The various faults under apparent movement as basis are, normal faults, reverse faults, hinge faults and strike-slip faults. Strike faults is not studied under this basis.

3. Fault in which hanging wall has apparently moved down with respect to foot wall is
a) Normal fault
b) Reverse fault
c) Strike-slip fault
d) Hinge fault

Answer: a [Reason:] Normal fault is a fault in which hanging wall has apparently moved down with respect to foot wall.

4. What do the normal faults cause to the crust of the Earth?
a) Shortening of crest
b) Cracking of crest
c) Extension in the crust
d) Strengthening of crust

Answer: c [Reason:] Due to the inclines nature of the fault plane and downward displacement of a part of the strata, normal faults cause an extension in the crust wherever they occur.

5. It can be with certainty whether it was the hanging wall which moved down or the foot wall which moved up. State true or false.
a) True
b) False

Answer: b [Reason:] Nothing can be said with certainty whether it was the hanging wall which moved down or the foot wall which moved up or both the walls moved down, the hanging wall moving more than the foot wall and hence the appearance.

6. Most common angle of normal faults is
a) 30° to 45°
b) 45° to vertical
c) 60° to horizontal
d) 0° to 180°

Answer: b [Reason:] In normal faults, the fault plane may be inclines at any angle between horizontal and vertical, but most commonly, the fault angles are between 45° and vertical.

7. What is the other name for normal faults?
a) Uniform faults
c) Similar faults
d) Gravity faults

Answer: d [Reason:] Normal faults are also often termed as gravity faults especially when it is established that the hanging wall has actually moved down with respect to the foot wall.

8. Alps in an example of which type of fault?
a) Graben
b) Horst
c) Hinge fault
d) Vertical fault

Answer: b [Reason:] Numerous small and big examples of horsts are found in major mountain systems such as Alps, Central Europe and East Africa.

9. Horst and graben are physiographic features of which type of faults?
a) Normal faults
b) Reverse faults
c) Thrust faults
d) Strike-slip faults

Answer: a [Reason:] Horst and graben are the physiographic features caused by normal faults occurring in pairs.

10. The type of fault which appears in such a way that the central wedge appears raised high up with respect to the sides is
a) Graben
b) Horst
c) Nappe
d) Thrust

Answer: b [Reason:] When two normal faults appear on either side of a central wedge shaped elongated block in such a way that the central wedge appears raised high up with respect to the sides, the outstanding structure is called a horst.

11. Block mountains are caused by which type of faults?
a) Horst
b) Graben
c) Thrust
d) Nappes

Answer: a [Reason:] Sometimes the horsts may be high and extensive enough to be called a Block mountain. In many horsts, the border faults are almost parallel in strike and very high angled.

12. Which fault is the reverse of horst?
a) Reverse fault
c) Graben
d) Hinge fault

Answer: c [Reason:] Graben is almost the reverse of a horst in structure and appearance. A graben may be described as an elongated wedge shaped central block, which appears to have moved downward with respect to the side blocks along two downward converging normal faults.

## Set 3

1. The type of fold in which the limbs dip away from each other at the crest is
a) Anticline
b) Syncline
c) Countercline
d) Doesn’t exist

Answer: a [Reason:] Anticlines are defined as those folds in which the limbs dip away from each other at the crest in the simplest forms.

2. The fold which is convex downwards is
a) Anticline
b) Syncline
c) U-cline
d) Crestcline

Answer: b [Reason:] Synclines are the reverse of anticlines in all details and the strata are downarched, that is, these become convex downwards.

3. Which of the following is not true about Anticline?
a) The strata are uparched
b) Geologically older rocks occupy a position in the interior of the fold
c) The limbs dip away from each other at the crest
d) They are convex downwards

Answer: d [Reason:] Anticlines are said to convex upwards and not downwards. Synclines are convex downwards.

4. What is the other name for upright fold?
a) Symmetrical fold
b) Asymmetrical fold
c) Overturned fold
d) Isoclinal fold

Answer: a [Reason:] Symmetrical folds are also called normal folds or upright folds. In such a fold, the axial plane is essentially vertical.

5. Fold in which the limbs lie exactly one over another
a) Isoclinal
b) Symmetrical
c) Recumbent
d) Asymmetrical

Answer: c [Reason:] In recumbent folds, one limb comes to lie exactly under the other limb so that a drill hole dug at the surface in the upper limb passes through the lower limb also.

6. Which of the following is also an overturned fold?
a) Isoclinal fold
b) Symmetrical fold
c) Asymmetrical fold
d) Recumbent fold

Answer: d [Reason:] Recumbent folds are described as extreme types of overturned folds in which the axial plane acquires an almost horizontal attitude.

7. Fold with flattened top is
a) Square fold
b) Plateau fold
c) Box fold
d) Conjugate fold

Answer: c [Reason:] Box fold may be described as a special type of fold with exceptionally flattened top and steep inclined limbs almost forming three sides of a rectangle.

8. The type of fold in which fold angle is between 10° to 90°
a) Tight fold
b) Loose fold
c) Gentle fold
d) Acute fold

Answer: a [Reason:] When it comes to fold angle as the basis of classification, the fold with fold angle between 10° and 90° is called tight fold.

9. Which of among the following is not a type of fold based on behaviour with depth?
a) Concentric fold
b) Similar fold
c) Supratenuous fold
d) Asymmetrical fold

Answer: d [Reason:] The first three options are the types based on behaviour with depth where asymmetric fold is based on position of axial plane.

10. Isogans converge inwards in class 1 folds. State true or false.
a) True
b) False

Answer: a [Reason:] In class 1 folds, isogans converge inwards whereas in class 3, these converge upwards.

11. Where can folds be observed in the southern part of India?
a) Vindhyan region only
b) Satpura region only
c) Vindhyan and Satpura ranges
d) Cannot be observed in southern India

Answer: c [Reason:] Among the peninsular mountains, only the Vindhyan and the Satpuran ranges show folding in a prominent manner. .

12. Where is the Liddar Valley Anticline situated?
a) Kashmir Himalayas
b) Uttarakhand Himalayas
c) Sikkim Himalayas

Answer: a [Reason:] The Liddar Valley Anticline in Kashmir Himalayas is often represented as a classic example in that almost complete sequence of Palaeozoic Era is fully developed in this anticline.

## Set 4

1. How many types of folds are there with plunge as basis?
a) 4
b) 3
c) 2
d) 5

Answer: c [Reason:] Only two main types are recognized as the types of folds on the basis plunge.

2. What is a plunging fold?
a) Fold with fold axis horizontal
b) Fold with fold axis only vertical
c) Fold with fold axis not horizontal
d) This is not a type of fold

Answer: c [Reason:] Any fold in which fold axis is not horizontal, that is, it makes an angle with the horizontal, may be described as a plunging fold.

3. A fold in which the folding continues in the direction of the axis of the fold is
a) Plunging fold
b) Non-plunging fold
c) Similar fold
d) Doesn’t exist

Answer: b [Reason:] Any fold in which the axis of the fold is essentially horizontal, that is, the plunging continues indefinitely in the direction of the axis of the fold is specifically described as non-plunging fold.

4. A fold which is not based on profile of the folded strata is
a) Cheveron fold
b) Conjugate fold
c) Cuspate fold
d) Plunging fold

Answer: d [Reason:] Cheveron fold, conjugate fold, cuspate fold are the types of fold based on profile of the fold surface whereas, plunging fold is based on plunge of the fold.

5. Folds with two hinges and three planar limbs are called
a) Conjugate folds
b) Cheveron folds
c) Cuspate folds
d) Cylindrical folds

Answer: a [Reason:] Conjugate folds are composite folds characterised with two hinges and three planar limbs in which the central limb is exceptionally flattened.

6. Folds characterized by well-defined, sharp hinge points are called
a) Conjugate folds
b) Cheveron folds
c) Cuspate folds
d) Cylindrical folds

Answer: b [Reason:] Cheveron folds are the folds characterised with well-defined, sharp hinge points and straight planar limbs.

7. Pick the non-planar fold from the following.
a) Box fold
b) Cheveron fold
c) Conjugate fold
d) Cuspate fold

Answer: d [Reason:] The limbs of the cuspate fields are not planar, they are quite clearly curved becoming concave upwards in the case of anticlines and concave downwards in the case of synclines.

8. Which of the following is not true about cylindrical folds?
a) They resemble sections of pipes
b) They have very well defined axes of folds
c) These well defined axes are repeated parallel to each other
d) These well defined axes are not repeated parallel to each other

Answer: d [Reason:] Folds in which repetition of axes parallel to themselves is not possible , are classified as non-cylindrical. The first three statements are true about the cylindrical folds.

9. Identify the type of fold shown below

a) Conjugate fold
b) Cheveron fold
c) Cuspate fold
d) Cylindrical fold

Answer: a [Reason:] As we can observe, there are two hinge points and three planar limbs. This is seen in conjugate fold.

10. The hinge joints in cuspate folds are not very sharp. State true or false.
a) True
b) False

Answer: a [Reason:] Cuspate folds are quite clearly curved becoming concave upwards in the case of anticlines and concave downwards in the case of synclines. The hinge zones are, therefore, not very sharp.

11. Folds which mostly occur in groups are based on
a) Profile of the fold surface
b) Mode of occurrence
c) Plunge
d) Relative curvature

Answer: b [Reason:] Folds which are based on mode of occurrence, rarely occur singularly; more often they occur in groups.

12. Which of the following about drag fold is not true?
a) The axes of the drag folds are parallel to those of the major folds
b) The drag folds plunge in the same manner as the major folds
c) The layers on the upper side of the drag folds slide away from the synclinal axis
d) The axes of the drag folds are not parallel to those of the major folds

Answer: d [Reason:] It has been established that the drag folds are parallel to those of the major folds. Hence the last option is wrong. The second and the third also true about drag folds.

## Set 5

1. What is Orogeny?
a) Flat land building activity
b) River forming activity
c) Rock breaking activity
d) Mountain building activity

Answer: d [Reason:] The geosynclines serve as depositional fields to which sediments are derived by the erosion of adjoining geanticlines and the sediments get accumulated and compacted. This material is then compressed and uplifted in the second stage of orogeny, which is the mountain building activity, to gradually take the shape of mountain systems.

2. The fold associated with magmatic activity is
a) Anticlinorium
b) Synclinorium
c) Diapiric fold
d) Box fold

Answer: c [Reason:] Diapiric folds are anticlines or domes in which uparching of strata is attributed to the rising of viscous magma from below.

3. A group of strata centrally centrally uplifted is
a) Dome
b) Basin
c) Valley
d) Cleavage

Answer: a [Reason:] Domes are a group of strata centrally uplifted in such a way that seen from the top, these dip away in all directions.

4. Pick the incorrect statement about basins.
a) Basins are the reverse of the domes
b) They are group of strata that are centrally depressed
c) Group of strata that are centrally uplifted
d) Involved layers dip towards a common central point from all sides

Answer: c [Reason:] Basins are a group of strata that are centrally depressed in such a way that the involved layers dip towards a common central point from all the sides.

5. Which among the following is considered as compound anticline?
a) Dome
b) Valley
c) Basin
d) Depression

Answer: a [Reason:] In any two cross sections drawn mutually at right angles to each other in a dome, a fold of anticlinal character will be seen to emerge. As such, a dome may be considered as a compound anticline.

6. Which is the fold depicting localized warping?
a) Homocline
b) Drag fold
c) Dome
d) Monocline

Answer: d [Reason:] A monocline is described as essentially a localized warping in which case otherwise horizontal strata show a single bend for a limited length and attain the horizontal attitude once again.

7. The fold which actually is just strata dipping in some direction
a) Dome
b) Homocline
c) Monocline
d) Basin

Answer: b [Reason:] A homocline actually describes a sequence of strata dipping in the same general direction at a uniform angle, especially when such structure is established to be a limb of major fold.

8. All synclines and anticlines can be considered to be homoclines. State true or false.
a) False
b) True

Answer: b [Reason:] An anticline or syncline of big magnitude, for instance, will each show two homoclines, one on either side of the hinge.

9. The folds which develop within body of weaker rocks are
a) Viscous folds
b) Internal folds
c) Drag folds
d) Monocline

Answer: c [Reason:] Drag folds may be defined as minor folds developed within the body of incompetent or weaker rocks surrounded on both sides by layers of competent or stronger rocks.

10. Drag folds are folds within folds. State true or false.
a) True
b) False

Answer: a [Reason:] Drag folds are defined as the minor folds which develop within the body of weaker rocks which might have already been folded. Hence it is possible to tell that drag folds are the folds within folds.

11. Which fold is depicted by the figure below?

a) Drag fold
b) Homocline
c) Monocline
d) Dome

Answer: c [Reason:] The above figure can be observed to be horizontal strata showing a single bend for a limited length and attain the horizontal attitude once again. This is nothing but monocline.

12. What would the two cross sections drawn at mutually right angle directions in a basin show?
a) Anticlinal characters
b) Synclinal characters
c) Both characters
d) Drag fold