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Multiple choice question for engineering

Set 1

1. The property of a mineral by virtue of which it can be cut with a knife is
a) Parting
b) Sectile
c) Malleable
d) Ductile

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The behaviour of a mineral towards the forces that tend to break, bend, cut or crush it is described by the term tenacity. Thus, when a mineral can be cut with a knife, it is described as sectile.

2. Mica is
a) Flexible
b) Rigid
c) Flexible and elastic
d) Elastic

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Some minerals are not only flexible but elastic, that is, they regain their shape when the force applied on them is removed. Micas are best example. Hence they are both flexible and elastic.

3. When the mineral occurs in flattened or square form, it is called
a) Tabular
b) Elongated
c) Batroidal
d) Box

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The mineral occurs in the form of a flattened, square, rectangular or rhombohedral shape if it is said to be tabular. In other words, flattening is conspicuous compared to lengthwise elongation.

4. Example for elongated structure is
a) Calcite
b) Beryl
c) Orthoclase
d) Barite

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] When the mineral is in the form of a thin or thick elongated, column-like crystals, it is said to be elongated. Example, Beryl.

5. Kyanite shows which form?
a) Columnar
b) Elongated
c) Bladed
d) Tabular

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The mineral appears as if composed of thin, flat, blade-like overlapping or juxtaposed parts, if it said to be bladed. Example: Kyanite.

6. Structure or form which depicts leaf-like sheets is
a) Foliated
b) Lamellar
c) Radiating
d) Granular

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The mineral is made up of relatively thick, flexible, leaf-like sheets, if it is said to be lamellar. Example: Vermiculite.

7. Muscovite mica shows which structure?
a) Lamellar
b) Foliated
c) Fibrous
d) Radiating

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The foliated structure is similar to lamellar in broader sense but in this case the individual sheets are paper thin, even thinner and can be easily separated. Example: Muscovite mica.

8. Identify the type of structure shown below.
a) Lamellar
b) Foliated
c) Radiating
d) Granular

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The mineral is made up of needle like or fibrous crystals which appear originating from a common point thereby giving a radiating appearance, if it is said to be radiating. Example: Iron pyrites.

9. Chromite shows which type of structure?
a) Granular
b) Globular
c) Reniform
d) Mammillary

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The mineral occurs in the form of densely packed mass of small garin-like crystals, in the case of globular structure. Example: Chromite.

10. Which form resembles human kidney?
a) Globular
b) Reniform
c) Granular
d) Mammillary

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Reniform is similar to globular but the shape of the bulbs or projections resembles to human kidneys. Example: Hematite.

11. Malachite shows which type of structure?
a) Reniform
b) Globular
c) Mammillary
d) Granular

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Mammillary is similar to globular but the projections are conspicuous in size, overlapping in arrangement and rounded in shape, best example is malachite.

12. The SI unit of specific gravity is
a) Ohm
b) g/cc
d) N/cc
d) No unit

View Answer

Answer: d Specific gravity is the ratio between density of a mineral and that of water at 4° Celsius. Since is a ratio, it has no units.

Set 2

1. The non-clastic sedimentary rock chiefly made of carbonate of calcium is
a) Limestone
b) Sandstone
c) Shale
d) Breccia

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Limestones are the most common sedimentary rocks from the non-clastic group and are composed chiefly of carbonate of calcium with subordinate proportions of carbonate of magnesium.

2. Distinct texture shown by limestone is
a) Sheeting
b) Lamination
c) Fossiliferous nature
d) Mud cracks

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] In view of the diverse ways in which the limestones are formed, these rocks show a variety of textures. The most important texture feature of limestones is their fossiliferous nature.

3. Which type of limestone is non-marine is origin among the following?
a) Chalk
b) Kankar
c) Shelly-limestone
d) Argillaceous limestone

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Kankar is a common nodular or concretionary form of carbonate material formed by evaporation of subsoil water rich in calcium carbonate just near the soil surface. It is non-marine in origin.

4. The major use of limestone is
a) Primary source material for manufacture of Portland cement
b) Used in metallurgical industries as flux
c) Used as building stone
d) Used as a source of magnesium

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Limestones and dolomites find important applications in many industries and engineering practice. Thus, limestone is a primary source material for manufacture of Portland cement and for a variety of limes.

5. What is a metamorphosed sedimentary rocks?
a) Shale
b) Limestone
c) Coal
d) Dolomite

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Coal may broadly be defined as metamorphosed sedimentary rocks of carbonaceous character in which the raw material has mostly been supplied by plants of various groups.

6. The grade of coal with very low calorific value is
a) Peat
b) Lignite
c) Bituminous
d) Anthracite

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Peat is the lowest grade coal that constitutes of only slightly altered vegetable matter. It may not be even considered as a coal. It has very low calorific value, high percentage of moisture and is rich in volatile matter.

7. The other name for brown coal is
a) Peat
b) Lignite
c) Bituminous
d) Anthracite

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Lignite is also known as brown coal and forms the poorest grade of coal with calorific value ranging between 6.00-8300 B.th.U.

8. What is the hardness of lignite grade of coal?
a) 0.5
b) 2.5
c) 5.5
d) 9

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Lignite is compact and massive in structure with an upper specific gravity of 1.5 and hardness of 2.5 on Mohs’ scale of hardness. Some varieties of lignite may still show to a good extent the traces of original vegetable structure.

9. The highest grade of coal is
a) Peat
b) Lignite
c) Bituminous
d) Anthracite

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Anthracite is considered the highest grade coal with fixed carbon ranging between 92-98 percent. It has highest calorific value in coals and burns without any smoke, as the volume matter is negligible.

10. A civil engineer has to deal with which rock in majority of cases?
a) Igneous rocks
b) Sedimentary rocks
c) Metamorphic rocks
d) Ultra-basic igneous rocks

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Sedimentary rocks cover a great part of the crust of the earth; they make up more than 75 percent of the surface area of the land mass. It is with these types of rocks that an engineer has to deal with in majority of cases. It is therefore, essential for a civil engineer to know as much as is possible about the salient features of these rocks.

Set 3

1. The intrusive bodies in which injection of lava occurs without any influence of dip and strike is
a) Concordant bodies
b) Discordant bodies
c) Non-cordant bodies
d) Uncomformities

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] All those intrusive bodies that have been injected into the strata without being influenced by their structural disposition (dip and strike) and thus traverse across or oblique to the bedding planes etc. are grouped as discordant bodies.

2. The example not belonging to discordant body is
a) Dykes
b) Volcanic necks
c) Bysmaliths
d) Batholiths

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Bysmalith is a type of laccolith which is again a type of concordant body and not a discordant body. The dykes, volcanic necks and batholiths are usually the widely studied types of discordant bodies.

3. Which discordant body is columnar or column shaped?
a) Dykes
b) Volcanic necks
c) Bysmaliths
d) Batholiths

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Dykes may be defined as columnar bodies of igneous rocks that cut across the bedding plane or uncoformities or cleavage planes and similar structures.

4. Texture shown by dykes is
a) Equigranular
b) Directive
c) Intergrowth
d) All types of textures

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] In composition, dykes are generally made up of hypabyssal rocks like dolerites, porphyrites and lamprophyres, showing all textures between glassy and phaneritic types.

5. Dykes tend to occur individually. State true or false.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Dykes generally tend to occur in groups or sets. Thus, the term dyke-set is used for a couple of parallel and closely spaced dykes.

6. When the vents of quiet volcanoes become sealed with intrusions it leads to
a) Dyke
b) Batholith
c) Extrusion
d) Volcanic necks

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] In some cases vents of quiet volcanoes have become sealed with the intrusions. Such congealed intrusions are termed volcanic necks or volcanic plugs.

7. The bodies which show both concordant and discordant relations are
a) Dykes
b) Sills
c) Batholiths
d) Phacoliths

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Batholiths are huge bodies of igneous masses that show both concordant and discordant relations with the country rocks.

8. What should be the area and depth respectively, for an igneous body to be called a batholith?
a) 100 square km and depth not traceable
b) 10 square km and depth up to 100km
c) Not traceable and depth 10 km
d) 50 km and depth 10 km

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The dimensions of batholiths vary considerably but is generally agreed that to qualify as a batholith the igneous mass should be greater than 100 square kilometres in area and its depth should not be traceable.

9. What is the term used for a batholith when surface area is less than 100 km?
a) Dykes
b) Stock
c) Sock
d) Sillets

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] When the surface area of batholith-like igneous mass is less than 100 km, it is commonly termed as stock. When such a stock has roughly circular outline, it is further distinguished as a boss.

10. Majority of batholiths show which composition?
a) Felsitic
b) Granitic
c) Ophitic
d) Directive

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] In composition, batholiths may be made of any type of igneous rock. They also exhibit many types of textures and structures. But as a matter of observation, majority of batholiths shows predominantly granitic composition, texture and structure.

11. Pick the wrong statement about granitization.
a) It is a set of processes rather than a single step
b) It involves already existing sedimentary and other rocks
c) It involves magmatic stage
d) It doesn’t actually require magmatic stage

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Granitization may be broadly described as a set of processes by which already existing sedimentary and other rocks are changed into granit-like without actually passing through a magmatic stage.

12. The volcanic sheets may vertical. State true or false.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The volcanic sheets may be horizontal or slightly inclined depending upon the original topography and subsequent geological history of the area.

Set 4

1. Volcanic earthquakes are rarely felt outside the regions of inactive volcanoes. State true or false.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] In volcanic eruptions, huge quantities of lava are thrown out suddenly under great pressure and with a big bang, causing tremors all around volcanic earthquakes, as these are called, are rarely felt outside the regions of active volcanoes.

2. Which earthquake is local in nature and rarely occurring?
a) Volcanic earthquake
b) Shallow earthquake
c) Collapse earthquake
d) Intermediate earthquake

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The collapse earthquakes are invariably of a local nature, and rare occurrence. These are caused when a portion of ground collapses suddenly because of removal of support from below due to natural processes of rock wastage.

3. Which theory is acclaimed as a satisfactory explanation about the cause of earthquakes?
a) Elastic Rebound theory
b) Clastic theory
c) Tremors theory
d) Seismology theory

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The Elastic Rebound Theory propounded originally by H.F.Reid in 1906 is, at present, widely acclaimed as a satisfactory explanation. It was proposed by him, on the basis of elaborate studies of San Francisco Earthquake of 1906 that it was related to displacement along the San Andres fault.

4. The phase during which the stored elastic energy is released is
a) Preparatory phase
b) Rupture phase
c) Post failure phase
d) Tertiary phase

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The rupture phase takes place along the fault and all or part the stored elastic energy is released as seismic waves and also transformed into heat or potential energy. Main shock is the characteristic of this phase.

5. Foreshocks are often recorded in which phase?
a) Preparatory phase
b) Rupture phase
c) Post failure phase
d) Tertiary phase

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The preparatory phase is the phase in which a non-hydrostatic stress field is created in a certain region around a fault; the direction of the preparatory phase is to ultimately define the size of the actual earthquake. A number of “foreshocks” are often recorded during this phase.

6. The phase which involves restoration to state of equilibrium is
a) Preparatory phase
b) Rupture phase
c) Post failure phase
d) Tertiary phase

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The post failure adjustment is the phase during which the medium is restored to a state of equilibrium involving series of “after shocks” which are simply manifestation of release of residual strain from the rocks.

7. Earthquakes occur at which portion of plates?
a) Middle portion
b) Along the boundaries of plates
c) Along the equidistant lines of plates
d) At the centre point of the plates

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Already exhaustive data has been collected to show that earthquakes occur along the boundaries of plates moving apast each other.

8. The inner regions of plates are free from tectonic earthquakes. State true or false.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The tectonism involving earthquakes is related to those boundaries, which are stressed and where stress is released by way of thrust faulting, block faulting or transcurrent faulting. The inner regions of plates are by and large free from tectonic earthquakes.

9. The plate movements at boundaries are
a) Very rapid
b) Fast
c) Moderate in speed
d) Very slow

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Since the plate movements at the boundaries are very slow, stresses go on building up in the rocks of the immediate neighbourhood till the limits are reached.

10. Rocks behave as ________ masses towards operating stresses.
a) Inelastic
b) Elastic
c) Isotropic
d) Anisotropic

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] According to the Elastic Rebound Theory, rocks are believed to behave as elastic masses towards operating stresses. When these are stressed, the rocks respond by bending as a first reaction.

Set 5

1. Pick the option which is not the cause of folding.
a) Folding due to tangential tension
b) Folding due to tangential compression
c) Folding due to intrusions
d) Folding due to differential compression

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The various causes of folding that are studied are, folding due to- tangential compression, intrusions and differential compression. Hence first option is not correct.

2. Bending or warping is studied under
a) Tectonic folding
b) Non-tectonic folding
c) Volcanic folding
d) Intrusional folding

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Folding may be either due to tectonic causes or due to non-tectonic causes. The tectonic folding of the rocks is bending or warping of rocks due very conspicuously to superficial processes.

3. The cause of folding which does not occur due to the tangential stresses is
a) Flexural folding
b) Flexural creeping
c) Flowage folding
d) Shear folding

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Under the influence of tangential stresses, folding may develop in either of the three ways: flexural folding, flowage folding and shear folding.

4. How does the thickness of the layer affect flexural folding?
a) Thinner the layers, greater is the slip
b) Thicker the layers, lesser is the slip
c) Thicker the layers, greater is the slip
d) Has no effect

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Thickness of the layers and nature of the contact are important factors on which the amount of slip depends. Thicker the layer, greater is the slip.

5. Which are the rocks more prone to flexural slip?
a) Shale
b) Basalt
c) Soft clay
d) Limestone

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Types of the rocks involved: siltstones, sandstones and limestones are more prone to flexure slip folding compared to soft clays and shales.

6. In which cause of folding, the thickness of fold does not remain uniform?
a) Flexural folding
b) Shear folding
c) Flowage folding
d) Flexural tension

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] During the compression due to flowage folding, the material of the involved layers behaves almost as a viscous or plastic mass and gets buckled up and deformed at varying rates suffering unequal distortion. In such cases the thickness of the resulting fold does not remain uniform.

7. Flowage folding occurs in which type of rocks
a) Competent rocks
b) Incompetent rocks
c) Any rock
d) Sedimentary rock

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Flowage folding is the principal process of folding in incompetent or weaker, plastic type of rocks such as clays, shales, gypsum and rock salt etc.

8. How does the distance from hinge point affect displacement due to folding?
a) Greater the distance, larger is the displacement
b) Lesser the distance, larger is the displacement
c) Doesn’t depend on the distance from hinge point
d) Greater the distance, smaller is the displacement

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Distance from hinge point is also an important factor on which displacement of folding depends. Greater the distance from the hinge points, larger is the displacement.

9. Flexural folding is also called as “flexural-slip-folding”. State true or false.
a) False
b) True

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Flexural folding is also distinguished as flexural-slip-folding in which the slip or movement of the strata involved takes place parallel to the bedding planes of the layers.

10. The process of folding which causes fracture in rocks initially is
a) Flexural folding
b) Flowage folding
c) Shear folding
d) Intrusion folding

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] In many cases, folding is attributed to shearing stresses rather than simple compression. It is assumed that in such a process, numerous closely spaced fractures develop in the rock at the first stage of the process.

11. Pick the wrong statement. The converging plates may be
a) Two continental plates
b) A continental plate and an oceanic plate
c) A continental plate and an island plate
d) Two oceanic plates

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The converging plates may be- two continental plates, a continental plate and an oceanic plate or a continental plate and an island plate but not two oceanic plate.

12. The displacement at the hinge point is maximum. State true or false.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Greater the distance from the hinge points, larger is the displacement, so much that it may be negligible at the hinge point. Hence the statement above is not true.

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