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Multiple choice question for engineering

Set 1

1. Which of the following is not a failure due to role of water?
a) Increase in pore pressure
b) Accumulation of water at the back of the rock
c) Accumulation of water at the front of the rock
d) Lubrication effect of the rock mass

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The various causes of rock mass due to role of water are: Increase in pore pressure, accumulation of water behind the rock mass, lubrication of water etc. Water cannot get accumulated in front of the rock and if it does happen in some conditions, it does not contribute greatly to the failure.

2. The rock which can be stable even with vertical slopes is
a) Sandstone
b) Granite
c) Shale
d) Chalk

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Crystalline igneous rocks like granites and gabbros and massive metamorphic rocks like marbles, quartzites and gneisses may be stable even with vertical slopes, whereas the same cannot be said about chalk.

3. Which type of sandstone is more stable?
a) Cemented with siliceous material
b) Cemented with argillaceous material
c) Cemented with ferruginous material
d) Cemented with calcareous material

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Sandstones for instance, occur in a great variety of types. Fine textured, dense and massive sandstones with siliceous cements may be very stable even at vertical slopes whereas the same rock with ferruginous, calcareous and clayey cements may become unstable at angle of 60° or even less.

4. What can be said about stability of slope when the layers are horizontal?
a) Stable up to 45°
b) Stable at all angles up to 90°
c) Unstable up to 45°
d) Unstable at all angles up to 90°

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The layers horizontal layers: Such rocks forming the slopes of the natural valleys and artificial cuts are stable at all angles up to 90°. When they fail, it may be due to presence of secondary jointing or related fractures.

5. What has to be considered while giving cuts in stratified rocks?
a) Risk factor
b) Complication factor
c) Safety factor
d) Dip factor

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The dip factor has to be kept in mind while giving cuts in stratified rocks. it may be possible to explain that cuts parallel to the dip of the rocks are more safe and stable compared to those parallel to the strike of layers.

6. In metamorphic rocks derived from stratified sedimentary rocks, the direction of cleavage with respect to the original bedding may cause complex system of weak planes. State true or false.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] In metamorphic rocks derived from stratified sedimentary rocks, the direction of cleavage with respect to the original bedding may cause complex system of weak planes. As such slips may be of common occurrence in the slopes made of the above metamorphic rocks.

7. Which zones are most potential surfaces for rock slips?
a) Smooth surfaces
b) Rough surfaces
c) Shear zones
d) Tensile zones

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Shear zones are most potential surfaces for rock slips, especially when lubricated with water due to soft character of the shear zone material.

8. Which of the following is an external factor for failure?
a) Composition of the mass
b) Role of water
c) Geological structures
d) Removal of vegetation

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Removal of vegetation cover especially trees is an external factor that has been a contributive factor in causing slope failures in a large number of cases, including the notorious Nashri Slide near Ramban on National Highway-1 in Jammu Kashmir.

9. Majority of rocks are free from joints and cracks. State true or false.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] A very few rocks are free from the structures like cracks and joints which may occur due to tension, compression or shear to which these rocks have been subjected since their formation.

Set 2

1. What are the rocks showing granulose structure called?
a) Granolites
b) Granulites
c) Granilites
d) Granites

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The individual grains may be irregular in outline but are interlocking. Foliation is absent or negligible. Rocks with granular structure are termed as granulites.

2. The cleavage also called slaty cleavage is
a) Flow cleavage
b) Fracture cleavage
c) Fine cleavage
d) Medium cleavage

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Flow cleavage is also called flow cleavage because of its development in slates. This cleavage is developed during metamorphism by parallel arrangement of highly cleavable flaky and platy minerals.

3. The cleavage involving microfractures is
a) Flow cleavage
b) Fracture cleavage
c) Fine cleavage
d) Medium cleavage

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Fracture cleavage is developed due to parallel orientation of very fine structures, often called microfractures, that may be developed in minerals of a rock undergoing dynamic metamorphism.

4. It is easy to distinguish two types of cleavages in hand specimen. State true or false.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] It is often difficult to distinguish between two types of cleavage in hand specimen. The cleavage structure is of great importance in field mapping of metamorphic rocks as it provides very useful information about structural feature like folding.

5. Slaty cleavage is result of which metamorphism of clays and shales?
a) Thermal
b) Dynamic
c) Thermodynamic
d) Barometric

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Traces of bedding planes may be found as relict structures in some slates. The slaty cleavage is the result of severe type of dynamic metamorphism of clays and shales.

6. Schistose is resulted due to
a) Recrystallization
b) Reforming
c) Reorientation
d) Recrystallization and reorientation

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Schistose results due to combines effect of heat and pressure during metamorphism involving both recrystallization and reorientation of platy minerals as irregular layers or bands.

7. The term including both cleavage and schistosity is
a) Foliation
b) Fracture
c) Parting
d) Reverbrance

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Foliation is a broader term explaining layered structure in metamorphic rocks and is often understood to include cleavage and schistosity. However, foliation in particular expresses segregation of minerals in an alternating manner.

8. Foliation generally results due to which metamorphism?
a) Dynamic
b) Thermal
c) Thermodynamic
d) Barometric

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Foliation generally results due to thermodynamic metamorphism in coarse-grained igneous rocks like granites and sandstones and metamorphic rocks like schists.

Set 3

1. Asbestos is fibrous variety of
a) Chrysotile
b) Cristile
c) Christile
d) Christine

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The common asbestos is actually a fibrous variety of mineral Chrysotile-hydrous silicate of magnesium.

2. The amphibole varieties are found in which state?
a) Karnataka
b) Bihar
c) Orissa
d) Rajasthan

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The amphibole varieties anthophyllite and tremolite, are produced in Udaipur and Durgapur districts.

3. Which mineral is used in paints, rubber textiles?
a) Asbestos
b) Barytes
c) Corundum
d) Quartz

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The mineral Baryte finds use in paints, rubber textiles and also in oil well drilling muds besides in chemical industry.

4. Which state produces largest amount of barytes?
a) Kerala
b) Andhra Pradesh and Telangana
c) Karnataka
d) Orissa

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Andhra Pradesh is presently the largest producer of barytes in our country. The mineral occurs in limestones spread over districts of Kuddapah, Kurnool and Anantapur.

5. The pure variety of corundum is
a) Emerald and ruby
b) Ruby and Sapphire
c) Sapphire and diamond
d) Ruby and Coral

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] A high grade natural abrasive- corundum. The mineral finds use in grinding wheels. Its pure varieties form gems- the ruby and sapphire.

6. Dolomite is not used for/as
a) Flux
b) Refractory material
c) Source in special cements
d) Precious gemstones

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Dolomite is carbonate rock of wide occurrence in India and elsewhere and also with wide applications as a flux in metallurgy, as a refractory material and as a source material in special cements.

7. Which mineral is used in manufacture of Sorel cement?
a) Dolomite
b) Magnesite
c) Manganese
d) Iron

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Magnesite is one of the important refractory materials. Other uses of magnesite include in the manufacture of a special cement called Sorel cement, in chemical industry and also as a source of metal magnesium.

8. Mica is of which origin?
a) Igneous
b) Sedimentary
c) Metamorphic
d) Erosional

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The mica mineral is of an igneous origin and commonly occurs in pegmatites in the form of thick sheets and masses.

9. Gypsum commonly occurs as a mineral of which origin?
a) Primary
b) Secondary
c) Tertiary
d) Quarternary

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Gypsum commonly occurs as a mineral of secondary origin associated with other sedimentary formations in the form of intervening layers, stringers and extended beds.

10. The only producer of diamond in India is
a) Rajasthan
b) Madhya Pradesh
c) Bihar
d) Orissa

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] In India, diamonds have been produced only in Madhya Pradesh from the well-known Panna diamond mines. Here the mineral occurs in volcanic pipes mixed with primary magmatic rocks and also from the conglomerate deposits around the hill.

Set 4

1. The main processes which does not come under chemical weathering are
a) Solution
b) Hydration and hydrolysis
c) Insolation
d) Carbonation

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The processes, solution, hydration and hydrolysis, carbonation are all chemical processes and involve chemical reaction, whereas, insolation is a process of mechanical weathering.

2. The rock-mineral insoluble in water is
a) Rock salt
b) Gypsum
c) Calcite
d) Pyrite

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Pyrite is insoluble in water, whereas, rock salt, gypsum and calcite are examples of minerals that are soluble in water to some extent.

3. Limestone is not easily soluble in pure water but carbonated water dissolves the rock effectively. State true or false.
a) False
b) True

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Pure water is not a good solvent of minerals in most cases, but when the water is carbonated, its solvent action for many common minerals is enhanced. Thus, limestone is not easily soluble in pure water but carbonated water dissolves the rock effectively.

4. Minerals like Orthoclase and Felspar undergo which method of chemical decomposition?
a) Hydration
b) Hydrolysis
c) Oxidation
d) Reduction

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Ions may be exchanged whereby some ions from water may enter into the crystal lattice of the mineral. This process of exchange of ions is called hydrolysis. It is a very common process of weathering of silicate minerals and is best explained with reference to weathering of mineral Orthoclase, Felspar.

5. Which of the following is reduction?
a) Removal of hydrogen
b) Removal of electron
c) Removal of oxygen
d) Addition of oxygen

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Oxidation means of either removal of electron or hydrogen or addition of oxygen but, reduction may involve removal of oxygen or addition of hydrogen or electron.

6. 2KaISi3O8 + 2H2O + CO2 → Al2Si2O5(OH)4 + K2CO3 + 4SiO2
Orthoclase + Carbonic acid → ___________ + Pot. Carbonate + Silica
Identify the mineral in the blank space of the equation.
a) Illite
b) Kaolinite
c) Montmorillonite
d) Halloysite

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The reaction of orthoclase with carbonic acid yields kaolinite {Al2Si2O5(OH)4 } and Pot. Carbonate and silica.

7. Which of the following about Spheroidal weathering is not true?
a) It is a complex type of weathering
b) Both mechanical and chemical weathering are believed to happen
c) Formation of joints is involved
d) Formation of joints is not involved

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Spheroidal weathering is a complex type of weathering observed in jointed rocks and characterized with the breaking of original rock mass into spheroidal blocks. Both mechanical and chemical weathering are believed to actively cooperate in causing spheroidal weathering. The original solid rock mass is split into small block masses by development of parallel joints.

8. Factor not affecting weathering is
a) Colour of the rock
b) Nature of the rock
c) Climate
d) Physical environment

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Weathering is affected by the factors like nature of the rock, climate, physical environment but is not affected by colour of the rock. It has no influence over its weathering.

9. It is said that Sandstone is more resistant to weathering compared to Granite. What is the basic reason behind this phenomenon?
a) The external outline form of sandstone
b) Sandstone is harder than granite
c) Granite is mainly made of quartz
d) Sandstone is mainly made of quartz

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Among granite and sandstones exposed to atmosphere simultaneously in the same or adjoining areas having hot and humid climate, the sandstone will resist weathering to a great extent because they are made up mainly of quartz(SiO2) which is highly weathering resistant mineral.

10. Identify the pair mismatched
a) Cold and humid – Both mechanical and chemical weathering
b) Dry and cold – Neither of them
c) Hot and humid – Mechanical weathering is predominant
d) Hot and dry – Mechanical weathering is predominant

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] In the hot and humid conditions chemical weathering is predominant and not mechanical, since, there is presence of moisture.

11. Which of the following rock forming minerals is more resistant to weathering compared to Hornblende?
a) Augite
b) Biotite
c) Olivine
d) Calcite

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The resistance to weathering increases in the following order for dark coloured minerals- Olivine, Augite, Hornblende, Biotite. Hence only Biotite is most resistant. Calcite as it is very reactive among the rock forming minerals.

12. Which of the following is true about Eluvium?
a) It is that category of end product of weathering that has been moved to some distance after its formation.
b) It is associated with weathering of slopes
c) It is the end product of weathering that happens to lie over and above the parent rock
d) Regolith is not the other name for Eluvium

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The basic definition of Eluvium is “It is the end product of weathering that happens to lie over and above the parent rock”. Regolith is another term for eluvium.

13. The zone consisting of mixed composition is
a) Zone A
b) Zone B
c) Zone C
d) Zone D

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Zone B is of mixed composition, partly of soil and partly of weathered rock, the latter becoming more dominating with depth.

14. Among the following the term which is not effect of chemical weathering is
a) Scree formation
b) Disfiguring
c) Pitting
d) Honeycombing

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Disfiguring, pitting, honeycombing and loss of surface appearance are quite common effects chemical weathering on stones used irrationally without due regard to the local environment. Scree formation happens due to mechanical weathering.

15. Formation of colloids is sometimes the end product of weathering. State true or false.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The various process of chemical weathering operating on the rocks and minerals under different atmospheric conditions may not always end up in the formation of stable end products. Often they result in splitting of particles into smaller particles –the colloids- characterized by atoms with only partial satisfied electrical charges.

Set 5

1. The phenomenon not associated with imbricate structures is
a) Series of thrust blocks occur in close proximity
b) Thrust blocks are piled up one above another
c) All fault surfaces dip in the same direction
d) Thrust blocks aren’t piled up one above another

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] When a series of thrust faults occur in close proximity, thrust blocks are piled up one above another and all the fault surfaces dip in same direction. The resulting interesting structure is known as an imbricate structure.

2. In the Himalayan Mountains, many well defined nappe zones have been recognized. State true or false.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] In the Himalayan Mountains, many well defined nappe zones have been recognized among which may be mentioned the Kashmir Nappe, the Nappe zone of Shimla Himalayas and the Nappes of the Garhwal Himalayas.

3. Most common term used for strike-slip faults is
a) Slip fault
b) Transform fault
c) Tranlational fault
d) Hinge fault

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] There are some other terms used for strike slip faults such as lateral faults, transverse faults, wrench faults and transform faults. Of these, the transform faults are very common and denote strike slip faults specially developed in oceanic ridges.

4. The type of fault where the faulted blocks have been moved against each other in horizontal direction is
a) Reverse fault
b) Hinge fault
c) Strike-slip fault
d) Vertical fault

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Strike-slip faults are defined as the faults in which faulted blocks have been moved against each other in an essentially horizontal direction. The fault plane is almost vertical and net slip may be measured in great distances.

5. Which fault is developed in oceanic ridges?
a) Wrench faults
b) Transform faults
b) Lateral faults
c) Transverse faults

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The transform faults are very common and denote strike slip faults specially developed in oceanic ridges.

6. San Andres fault is the best example of which type of fault?
a) Strike-slip fault
b) Vertical fault
c) Normal fault
d) Reverse fault

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The best example of a strike-slip fault is the great San Andres fault of California. It extends for almost about 1000 km in a NW-SE direction.

7. Identify the type of fault from the figure below.
engineering-geology-interview-questions-answers-classification-faults-03-q7
a) Vertical fault
b) Reverse fault
c) Strike-slip fault
d) Hinge fault

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] From the figure it is clear that the hanging wall has moved up with respect to the foot wall and hence clearly it is a reverse fault.

8. If the left block appears to have moved towards the observer, then which type of fault does it belong to?
a) Left-handed fault
b) Right-handed fault
c) Enecholon fault
d) Radial fault

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Strike-slip faults are further distinguished into right handed or left handed depending on the direction of movement of the block with respect to an observer: it is a left-handed fault if the left block appears to have moved towards the observer and a right handed fault if the right block seems to have moved towards the observer.

9. What are pivotal faults called as?
a) Reverse faults
b) Radial faults
c) Hinge faults
d) Normal faults

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Hinge faults are also called as pivotal or rotational faults. A hinge fault is characterised by a movement of the disrupted blocks along a medial point called the hinge point.

10. The movement of blocks in hinge faults is
a) Translational
b) Rotational
c) Lateral
d) Sliding

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The movement in hinge fault, is rotational rather translational.

11. Which is the rare type of fault?
a) Vertical fault
b) Reverse fault
c) Thrust fault
d) Hinge fault

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] In hinge faults, the amount of displacement increases away from the hinge point. These are rather rare type of faults.

12. What is the displacement range of strata in San Andres fault?
a) 10 km to 100 km
b) 20 km to 80 km
c) 50 km to 200 km
d) 100 km to 500 km

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The strata is believed to have suffered displacement varying between 50 km to 200 km in the San Andres fault in California.