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# Multiple choice question for engineering

## Set 1

1. Water content is given by:
a) Weight of water/mass of soil
b) Mass of water/mass of solid
c) Mass of water/mass of soil
d) Mass of water/weight of solid

Answer: b [Reason:] In Geotechnical Engineering, water content is an important parameter for analysing soil. It is expressed as mass of water divided by mass of solids. It is denoted by w and expressed in %.

2. Who is the father of Geotechnical Engineering?
a) Christian Otto Mohr
b) Clausius Cleyperon
c) John Smith
d) Karl Von Terzaghi

Answer: d [Reason:] He was an Austrian civil engineer and geologist. Most of the findings in geotechnical engineering and soil properties are done by him.

3. According to Darcy’s Law:
a) q=iA
b) q=kA
c) q∞iA
d) q∞kA

Answer: c [Reason:] Darcy’s Law states that rate of flow per unit time is proportional to hydraulic gradient. q∞iA is the mathematical representation of the law.

4. Triaxial compression test is used to find __________ of soil.
a) Compressive strength
b) Permeability
c) Specific gravity
d) Shear strength

Answer: d [Reason:] There are 4 methods available to measure shear strength of soil – direct shear, triaxial compression, unconfined compression and vane shear test. Triaxial compression test is the most accurate one.

5. ____________ index is used to find settlement of soil.
a) Compression
b) Expansion
c) Recompression

Answer: a [Reason:] A plot is made between void ratio (e) and log effective stress (logσ). It shows different curves corresponding to loading, unloading and reloading of soil. Compression index Cc= – ∆e∆logσ

6. Which of the following does not happen when compaction is done?
a) Permeability decreases
b) Water content increases
c) Shear strength decreases
d) Compressibility decreases

Answer: c [Reason:] On compaction of a soil mass, the shear strength is increased. It is tightly and firmly compacted and offers resistance to deformation and flow.

7. ____________ is the measure of loss of strength with remoulding, with water content unchanged.
a) Compressibility
b) Sensitivity
c) Stability
d) Thixotropy

Answer: b [Reason:] Sensitivity values ranges from 1-16. For an insensitive soil, it is 1. A soil with sensitivity above 16, is termed as quick.

8. In Geotechnical Engineering, soil is considered as a _________ phase material.
a) 3
b) 2
c) 1
d) 4

Answer: a [Reason:] Soil is a 3 phase material. It consists of solids, water and air voids. It is represented in a 3 phase diagram with volume on left side and mass on the right side.

9. Fine particles are those particles with size less than —- mm diameter.
a) 0.023
b) 0.090
c) 0.075
d) 4.75

Answer: c [Reason:] Fine particles should pass through 75μ IS sieve. Fine particles include clay, silt and organic content in a soil mass.

10. The mass density of water at 4oC is:
a) 1000g/ml
b) 1kg/m3
c) 1000Mg/m3
d) 1000kg/m3

Answer: d [Reason:] Mass density is the ratio of mass of water to volume of water. At 4oC, it is 1g/ml or 1000kg/m3 or 1Mg/m3.

11. Percentage air voids is denoted as:
a) v
b) na
c) s
d) av

Answer: b [Reason:] Percentage air voids is the ratio of volume of air in voids to total volume of soil. It is denoted by na and expressed as a %.

12. Porosity and void ratio are related by:
a) e = n(1-n)
b) n = e(1-e)
c) 1-e = n
d) (1+n)n = e-1

Answer: a [Reason:] Void ratio is e and porosity is n. Another relationship between the two is n = e(1+e)

## Set 2

1. Glass is a mixture of:
a) Non-metallic silicates
b) Metallic silicates
c) Metallic acetates
d) Non-metallic acetates

Answer: b [Reason:] Glass is a solidified super-cooled solution of various metallic silicates having infinite viscosity.

2. How many different categories of glass are there?
a) 5
b) 4
c) 2
d) 3

Answer: d [Reason:] For the purpose of classification, glass can be grouped into 3 categories: Soda-lime glass, Potash-lime glass and Potash-lead glass.

3. Which of the following types of glass accounts for about 90% of manufactured glass?
a) Potash-lime glass
b) Soda-lime glass

Answer: b [Reason:] Soda-lime glass accounts for about 90% of manufactured glass. It is inexpensive, chemically stable, hard and workable.

4. Glass is not a single compound.
a) True
b) False

Answer: a [Reason:] It is a not a single compound and it is very difficult to give any particular chemical formula for it.

5. The two types of soda-lime glass- flat glass and container glass differ in:
a) Application and production method
b) Application and chemical composition
c) Production method and chemical composition
d) Application, production method and chemical composition

Answer: d [Reason:] They differ in application (flat glass is used for window panes and container glass for glass containers), production method (float process is used for windows and pressing for containers), chemical composition (flat glass has higher magnesium oxide and sodium oxide than container glass).

6. Which type of glass is used in manufacture of artificial gems, bulbs, lenses, etc?
a) Soda-lime glass
b) Special glass
d) Common glass

Answer: c [Reason:] Potash-lead glass is a mixture of potassium silicate and lead silicate. It possesses a bright lustre and has a great refractive power, hence it is used in manufacture of artificial gems, bulbs, lenses, etc.

7. What changes are observed when glass is heated?
a) It becomes softer
b) It bursts
c) It solidifies
d) It disintegrates

Answer: a [Reason:] It becomes softer and softer with rise in temperature and is ultimately transformed into a mobile liquid.

8. How many commercial forms of glass are there for various engineering and industrial
requirements?
a) 8
b) 11
c) 9
d) 10

Answer: b [Reason:] There are 11 forms of special varieties of glass for commercial purposes. They are sheet glass, plate glass, coloured glass, wired glass, structural glass, laminated glass, bullet-proof glass, fibre glass, foam glass, flint glass and soluble glass.

9. Chromatic glass is used in:
a) ICU and meeting rooms
b) Aquariums
c) Mobile screen protectors
d) Floors

Answer: a [Reason:] It is used in ICU, meeting rooms as it can control the transparent efficiency of glass and protects the interiors from day light.

10. The appearance of potash-lime glass in colour is:
a) Black
b) Green to colourless
c) Reddish brown
d) White

Answer: b [Reason:] The potash-lime glass has a greenish colour as a result of high iron content in the sand used to make the glass.

## Set 3

1. What does grade 33 cement indicate?
a) Tensile strength of 33 kN/m2
b) Tensile strength of 33 N/mm2
c) Compressive strength of 33 kN/m2
d) Compressive strength of 33 N/mm2

Answer: d [Reason:] The grades of cement are specified by IS 1489-1991. Cements are usually graded based on their compressive strength.

2. Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) has been classified into how many grades?
a) 2
b) 3
c) 10
d) 5

Answer: b [Reason:] There was only one grade of OPC before 1987 and was according to IS 269-1976. It was revised in 1991 and IS 1489-1991 included 3 grades namely, 33 grade, 43 grade and 53 grade.

3. Grade 43 OPC is used widely for:
a) High rise buildings
b) Plastering
c) House construction
d) Finishing works

Answer: c [Reason:] Grade 43 OPC has higher strength than grade 33 and lower than grade 53. Grade 33 used for finishing works under normal condition. Grade 53 is used for high rise building.

4. After how many days is strength of cement is tested and graded according to the result?
a) 7 days
b) 28 days
c) 1 day
d) 14 days

Answer: b [Reason:] Cement blocks are prepared to test their compressive strength. With proper curing and attaining strength, these can be tested. It requires 28 days to fully cure and attain strength of required grade, say 43 N/mm2 for grade 43 OPC.

5. The compressive strength of OPC increases with time:
a) True
b) False

Answer: a [Reason:] Cement blocks can be tested at 1 day, 3 days, 7 days and 28 days. Usually 1 day doesn’t give any result. Strength of 43 grade OPC at the end of 3 days is 23, 7 days is 33 and 28 days is 43. So, it increases with time.

6. Grade 43 OPC shall be rejected if it remains in bulk storage in factory for:
a) More than 3 months
b) More than 1 month
c) More than 6 months
d) More than 4 months

Answer: c [Reason:] Cement stored in factory of more than 6 months has to be retested and rejected if it does not meet requirements. Time period of more than 3 months is for cement bags with vendors.

7. The ratio of percentage of alumina to iron oxide in OPC 43 grade is:
a) 3.5
b) 0.66
c) 0.1
d) 0.05

Answer: b [Reason:] It is mentioned in IS 8112:2013 Table 2. 3.5 is the total sulphur content, 0.1 is chloride content and 0.05 is alkali content.

8. What is the required minimum fineness for grade 53 OPC?
a) 370 m2/kg
b) 370 cm2/g
c) 580 m2/kg
d) 580 cm2/g

Answer: a [Reason:] The value is in accordance with the IS code 12269 for 53 grade OPC. Table 3 gives physical requirements and fineness is one of them.

9. Which of the following cannot be added in 33 grade OPC after burning stage?
a) Gypsum
b) Water
c) Colouring Agents
d) Clay

Answer: d [Reason:] The details and specifications regarding manufacture of 33 grade OPC is mentioned in IS 269. It says that after burning, only certain element like gypsum, water, performance enhancers, colouring agent can be added. More raw material-clay cannot be added.

10. How much maximum percentage by mass of performance improvers can be added in grade
33 OPC?
a) 0.5
b) 1
c) 5
d) 0.1

Answer: c [Reason:] Performance improvers includes fly ash, slag, rice husk, ash, etc. These can be added in quantity of 5% by mass as per Table 1 given in IS 269.

## Set 4

1. The administration of highway projects depends on __________ factors.
a) 2
b) 5
c) 3
d) 6

Answer: c [Reason:] For each country, the administration of highway projects is different. But there are three factors common to all countries – social, political and economic.

2. In car – centred approach, ___________ has been considered.
a) Importance of transport
b) Managing existing roads for future traffic
c) Controlling demand for transportation
d) Future increase in traffic demand

Answer: d [Reason:] There are four strategies for highway planning. In car-centred approach, the considerations for future increase in traffic demand are taken care of. They are used in most large cities.

3. Travel patterns are determined by compiling a profile of ___________ and ___________ of all journeys made
within the area.
a) Origin, destination
b) Mode, destination
c) Origin, speed
d) Mode, speed

Answer: a [Reason:] The origin and destination points are considered for travel patterns. It gives details about the place and exact pattern in which people move from place to place.

4. Which of the below is a commercial element in highway construction?
a) Traffic
b) Installation technique
c) Environmental aspects
d) Material

Answer: c [Reason:] There are two elements in highway construction – technical and commercial. Technical elements include materials, their quality, traffic, installation techniques whereas commercial elements include environmental aspects, public concerns, legal aspects, political aspects, etc.

5. In India roads are classified into ________ based on location.
a) 6
b) 3
c) 4
d) 5

Answer: d [Reason:] They are national highways (NH), state highways (SH), major district road (MDRs), other district road (ODRs) and village road (VRs).

6. The longest international highway is:
a) Pan-American highway
c) Karakoram highway
d) Australia highway 1

Answer: a [Reason:] Pan-American highway is nearly 25,000 kms long. It connects many countries in America. Trans-Canada is longest national highway. Karakoram is highest international highway. Longest national highway circuit is Australia’s highway 1.

7. ___________ can provide a 3-5 dB reduction in tyre-pavement noise emissions.
a) Asphalt
b) Bituminous
c) Rubberised asphalt
d) Concrete

Answer: c [Reason:] Compared to other options, rubberised asphalt give a 3-5 dB reduction in the noise produced by tyre-pavement interaction.

8. How many types of pavement surfaces are there?
a) 4
b) 5
c) 6
d) 2

Answer: d [Reason:] The 2 types are Portland cement concrete (PCC) and hot-mix asphalt (HMA). Weathering courses, base course is laid below these.

9. The design consideration of highways doesn’t include:
a) Settlement
b) Cross section
c) Level of service
d) Sight distance

Answer: a [Reason:] To design foundation, settlement is an important parameter. For designing highways: the number of lanes, cross section, level of service, sight distance, alignment, lane width and so on are important considerations.

10. A prime coat is low viscosity asphalt emulsion used to create bond between existing
pavement and new asphalt overlay.
a) True
b) False

Answer: b [Reason:] A tack coat is used to bond existing pavement surface to the new asphalt overlay. A prime coat is applied to base course prior to laying HMA course.

11. __________ is used in shaping the surface of sand-clay roads.
a) Hoes and rakes
b) Mattocks and bush hooks
c) Drag scraper
d) Plow

Answer: a [Reason:] Mattocks and bush hooks are used for trimming surface. Drag scraper is used for scraping the road surface. Plow is used to expose the surface by overturning it.

## Set 5

1. What is the most dominant constituent of cement?
a) Silica
b) Lime
c) Magnesia
d) Alumina

Answer: b [Reason:] Cement contains about 60-65% of lime. Silica constitutes 17-25%, alumina 3-8% and magnesia 1-3%.

2. Deficiency of lime in cement leads to:
a) Unsound cement
b) Disintegration of cement
c) Quick setting of cement
d) Expansion of cement

Answer: c [Reason:] Presence of lime in sufficient quantity is necessary to form silicates and aluminates of calcium. Excess lime leads to expansion, disintegration and unsoundness of cement.

3. What effect does calcium sulphate have on cement?
a) Retards setting action
b) Acts as flux
c) Imparts colour
d) Reduces strength

Answer: a [Reason:] Calcium sulphate is found in cement in the form of gypsum. Its slows down the setting time of cement.

4. Which of the following adds quick-setting property to cement?
a) Magnesium oxide
b) Silicon dioxide
c) Iron oxide
d) Aluminium oxide

Answer: d [Reason:] Aluminium Oxide or Alumina is present in small quantity in cement and it helps in quick-setting property.

5. Which of the following imparts greenish grey colour to cement?
a) Calcium silicate
b) Calcium aluminate
c) Calcium aluminate ferrite
d) Calcium carbonate

Answer: c [Reason:] Calcium silicate and calcium aluminate are pure white minerals. Calcium aluminate ferrite is brown in colour, but due to absorption of light by magnesium, present as an impurity, greenish grey colour is imparted to cement.

6. Excess of Alkali in cements results in:
a) Dry cement paste
b) Efflorescence
c) Less plasticity
d) Unsound cement

Answer: b [Reason:] Efflorescence is the formation of powdery substance on the surface of masonry or concrete work. Alkalis usually get carried away by flue gases during heating. In excess quantity, they result in alkali-aggregate reaction.

7. What function does iron oxide perform in cement?
a) Increases strength
b) Makes cement sound
c) Increases setting time
d) Acts as flux

Answer: d [Reason:] Iron oxide acts as flux, in addition to being responsible for imparting colour to cement. If temperature goes higher, then iron oxide reacts with aluminium and calcium and results in formation of calcium aluminate ferrite.

8. How many major ingredients are present in the composition of cement?
a) 8
b) 5
c) 10
d) 6

Answer: a [Reason:] There are 8 main ingredients present in cement. They are lime, silica, alumina, magnesia, iron oxide, calcium sulphate, sulphur trioxide and alkalis.

9. Sulphur in cement is present in what amount?
a) 0.5 – 6 g
b) 1 – 2.5%
c) 0.5 – 6%
d) 1 – 2.5g