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Multiple choice question for engineering

Set 1

1. The effect of adding feedback makes the system__________
a) Linear
b) Non-linear
c) Time variant
d) Time invariant

Answer: a [Reason:] Consider the single loop system with forward path transfer function as the square function then the response generated is nonlinear if system is open loop but will be approximately linear if closed loop.

2. The relation between output response and input signal in closed loop system is :
a) Exponential
b) Parabolic
c) Linear
d) Nonlinear

Answer: c [Reason:] Due to the linearizing effect of the feedback the relation between output response and the input signal in closed loop system is linear.

3. Assertion (A): Practical systems must be closed loop system.
Reason (R): This is due to the fact that closed loop systems are least affected by parameter variations, stable, higher bandwidth, linear and more speed of response.
a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
b) Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
c) A is true but R is false.
d) A is false but R is true.

Answer: a [Reason:] Practically systems used must be linear to avoid error, ease of calibration and also to get accurate results but the systems used are non-linear to avoid the error due to the linearity they are approximated.

4. Regenerative feedback is also called as_________________
a) Negative feedback
b) Positive feedback
c) No feedback
d) Negative and Positive Feedback

Answer: b [Reason:] As the name implies that is regenerates the oscillations hence by name it can be positive.

5. Which of the following are the characteristics of regenerative feedback:
a) Zero damping
b) Stable
c) Least sensitive to parameter variations
d) None of the mentioned

Answer: a [Reason:] Output response is slow and sluggish and transient time is more due to the oscillations.

6. Which of the following are true:
a) Sensitivity of regenerative feedback is more than negative feedback but less than non-feedback system
b) Sensitivity of regenerative feedback is more non-feedback system but less than negative feedback system
c) Sensitivity of regenerative feedback is less than both
d) Sensitivity of regenerative feedback is more than both

Answer: c [Reason:] Sensitivity of the positive feedback system is even more than non-feedback system and it is more by a factor of 1/1-GH.

7. Loop gain provided by the regenerative feedback makes the closed loop transfer function insensitive to G(s).
a) True
b) False

Answer: a [Reason:] As if the positive feedback loop gain is nearly considered to be unity then transfer function becomes insensitive to G(s).

8. Which of the following statements is correct for any closed loop system?
a) All the co-efficient can have zero value
b) All the co-efficient are always non-zero
c) Only one of the static error co-efficient has a finite non-zero value
d) None of the mentioned

Answer: c [Reason:] Closed loop systems are the systems with positive and negative feedback and for standard test signals error constants are defined and for one of the inputs one of the static error co-efficient has a finite non-zero value.

Set 2

1. Which of the following devices is used for conversion of co-ordinates?
a) Microsyn
b) Selsyn
c) Synchro-resolver
d) Synchro-transformer

Answer: c [Reason:] Synchro-Resolver is rotary transformer used for measuring degree of rotation and used for the conversion of the co-ordinates.

2. The effect of error damping is to
a) Provide larger settling lime
b) Delay the response
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: c [Reason:] Error damping is to reduce steady state error as it is used to enhance the steady state response of the system and this can be done by increasing the damping of the system.

3. ______________technique gives quick transient and stability response
a) Root locus
b) Bode
c) Nyquist
d) Nichols

Answer: a [Reason:] Root locus is the right technique for the quick transient and stability response and gives the final response and quickly.

4. A phase lag lead network introduces in the output
a) Lag at all frequencies
b) Lag at high frequencies and lead at low frequencies
c) Lag at low frequencies and lead at high frequencies
d) None of the above mentioned

Answer: c [Reason:] A phase lag lead network is the combination of the lead and lag network and also it lags at low frequencies and lead at high frequencies.

5. Which of the following is the non-linearity caused by servomotor?
a) Static friction
b) Backlash
c) Saturation
d) None of the mentioned

Answer: c [Reason:] Linearity in the servo-motor is due to the saturation present and which is the important consideration for any type of the practical device.

6. ____________can be extended to systems which are time-varying?
a) Bode-Nyquist stability methods
b) Transfer functions
c) Root locus design
d) State model representatives

Answer: d [Reason:] State model representation is the best advantage for the systems over transfer function approach as it can be applied for the non-linear systems.

7. Laplace transform is used for the systems with:
a) Initial conditions infinite
b) Initial conditions zero
c) Initial conditions finite
d) Initial conditions equal to the initial input

Answer: b [Reason:] By definition of the transfer function by Laplace transform the initial conditions of the systems are considered to be zero.

8. Which of the following is an electromechanical device?
a) Induction relay
b) Thermocouple
c) LVDT
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: c [Reason:] LVDT is the electromechanical device which converts the displacement of the core to the electrical energy by the action of the transformer.

9. A differentiator is usually not a part of a control system because it
a) Reduces damping
b) Reduces the gain margin
c) Increases input noise
d) Increases error

Answer: c [Reason:] A differentiator is generally not the part of the control system as it increases the input noise due to reduced gain and increased bandwidth.

10. If the gain of the critical damped system is increased it will behave as
a) Oscillatory
b) Critically damped
c) Overdamped
d) Underdamped

Answer: a [Reason:] On increasing the gain damping will automatically get reduced and hence the oscillations in the system increases.

Set 3

1. The techniques of linear system can be used in the non-linear system entirely:
a) True
b) False

Answer: a [Reason:] The techniques of the linear system cannot be entirely used in the non-linear system as they are differentiated by this way only.

2. The disadvantages of the linear system are:
a) The constraints on the linear operation over wide range demands unnecessarily high quality.
b) The restriction to the linear theory may inhibit the designer’s curiosity to deliberately introduce the non-linear components.
c) Practically systems are non-linear
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: d [Reason:] Linear system impose certain restrictions as the components cost is very high and it will cause restriction to operate the otherwise linear components in non-linear region with a view to improve system response.

3. System non-linearities are taken account by:
a) Analytical
b) Graphical and numerical techniques
c) Both a and b
d) None of the mentioned

Answer: c [Reason:] Systems non-linearities are taken into account by the analytical, graphical and numerical techniques.

4. The superposition theorem is :
a) Homogeneity
c) Combination of homogeneity and additivity
d) Applied to non-linear systems

Answer: c [Reason:] Superposition theorem applies to linear system only and it refers to the additivity and homogeneity.

5. The standard test signal can be applied to give output to:
a) Linear systems
b) Non-linear systems
c) Time variant systems
d) Time invariant systems

Answer: a [Reason:] For linear systems the standard test signals can be applied to give the desired output.

6. The amplitude of the standard test signal does not matter in linear systems:
a) True
b) False

Answer: a [Reason:] The amplitude of the standard test signal is unimportant since any change in input signal amplitude results simply change in response scale with no change in the basic response characteristics.

7. The non-linear systems:
a) Do not obey superposition theorem
b) May be highly sensitive to the input amplitude
c) Laplace and z transform are not applicable to the non-linear systems
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: d [Reason:] The non-linear systems do not obey superposition theorem and also may be highly sensitive to the input impedance and Laplace and z transform are only applicable to the linear systems.

8. The stability of the linear system:
a) Determined by the location of the poles
b) Dependent entirely of whether or the system is driven
c) The stability of the undriven linear system is dependent on the magnitude of the final initial state.
d) Stability cannot be determined by the open loop poles

Answer: a [Reason:] Linear system’s stability can be determined by the location of poles and also it is independent entirely of whether or the system is driven and the stability of the undriven linear system is independent on the magnitude of the final initial state.

9. In non-linear system stability is :
a) Dependent on the input
b) Independent on initial state
c) Independent on input
d) Dependent on input and initial state.

Answer: d [Reason:] In non-linear system the stability is dependent on the input and initial states.

10. Non-linear elements may exhibit___________
a) Linear systems
b) Non-linear systems
c) Limit cycles
d) Time invariant systems

Answer: c [Reason:] Non-linear elements may exhibit the limit cycles which are self-sustained oscillations of fixed frequency and amplitude. Determination of existence of limit cycles is not an easy task as these may depend upon both the type and amplitude of the excitation signal.

11. The necessary condition of stability are:
a) Coefficient of characteristic equation must be real and have the same sign
b) Coefficient of characteristic equation must be non-zero
c) Both of the mentioned
d) Coefficient of characteristic equation must be zero

Answer: c [Reason:] The necessary condition of stability are coefficient of characteristic equation must be real, non-zero and have the same sign.

12. None of the coefficients can be zero or negative unless one of the following occurs:
a) One or more roots have positive real parts
b) A root at origin
c) Presence of root at the imaginary axis
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: d [Reason:] None of the coefficients can be zero or negative unless one or more roots have positive real parts, root at origin and presence of root at the imaginary axis.

13. The __________ of the coefficients of characteristic equation is necessary as well as sufficient condition for the stability of system of first and second order.
a) Negativeness
b) Positiveness
c) Positiveness and Negativeness
d) None of the mentioned

Answer: b [Reason:] The Positiveness of the coefficients of characteristic equation is necessary as well as sufficient condition for the stability of system of first and second order.

14. The Positiveness of the coefficients of characteristic equation is necessary as well as sufficient condition for:
a) First order system
b) Second order system
c) Third order system
d) None of the mentioned

Answer: c [Reason:] It does not ensure the negativeness of the real parts of the complex roots of the third or higher order systems.

15. Assertion (A): Routh criterion is in terms of array formulation, which is more convenient to handle.
Reason (R): This method is used to investigate the method of stability of higher order systems.
a) Both A and R are true and R is correct explanation of A
b) Both A and R are true and R is not correct explanation of A
c) A is true but R is false
d) A is False but R is true

Answer: b [Reason:] Routh criterion is in terms of array formulation which is convenient to handle stability problems of higher order systems.

Set 4

1. An essential ingredient for effective multimedia presentations incorporates user participation or __________
b) Buttons
c) Interactivity
d) Integration

Answer: c [Reason:] Interactivity allows the user to choose the information to view, to control the pace and flow of information, and to respond to items and receive feedback.

2. The term that describes a user’s participation with a multimedia presentation is __________
a) Hyperactivity
b) Interactivity
c) Inactivity
d) Reactivity

Answer: b [Reason:] Interactivity allows the user to choose the information to view, to control the pace and flow of information, and to respond to items and receive feedback.

3. Multimedia can contain
a) Graphics, animation, video, music, and voice
b) Only numeric type data
c) Numeric, text, and picture data
d) Databases that turn contain other databases creative massive data collection

Answer: a [Reason:] Multimedia includes video, music, voice, graphics, and text and is the main source of entertainment in day to day life.

4. Primary uses of business interactive multimedia include all of the following except
a) Product demonstrations
b) Web page development
c) Entertainment
d) High-quality presentations

Answer: c [Reason:] Entertainment interactive multimedia is primarily used in the home and multimedia includes video, music. voice, graphics and text.

5. The connection between a multimedia presentation and a file containing a song to be played is called a(n) _________
b) Chain
c) Pointer
d) Tie

Answer: a [Reason:] Each page presents information and provides links or connections to related information and the connection between a multimedia presentation and file containing a song to be played is called link.

6. Clicking on special areas called __________ activates the various features of a multimedia presentation.
a) Activators
b) Starters
c) Pages
d) Buttons

Answer: d [Reason:] By clicking on special areas called buttons on a page, you can make appropriate links and navigate through a presentation to locate and discover information.

7. When determining the overall objective of the project, the resources required and the persons or team who will work on the project, you are in the __________ step of developing a multimedia presentation.
a) Planning
b) Designing
c) Creating
d) Supporting

Answer: a [Reason:] The planning process would be the part of developing a multimedia presentation when determining the overall objective of the project the resources required and the persons or team who will work on the project.

8. The creation of a storyboard is essential to the development of the project. This is the __________ step of development.
a) Planning
b) Designing
c) Creating
d) Supporting

Answer: b [Reason:] The storyboard is part of the design process in the development of a project which the primary part of in building of the project and describes the whole working of the project and functionalities.

9. Errors are identified and the presentation is evaluated in terms of effectiveness in the __________ step.
a) Planning
b) Designing
c) Creating
d) Supporting

Answer: d [Reason:] Evaluate effectiveness, identify errors, and revise as needed is done in the support stage and this is the stage in which necessary measures are taken to complete the project as a whole.

10. Before building a presentation with a multimedia authoring system, the designer would use a _________
a) Flowchart
b) Hypermedia database
c) Button file
d) Storyboard

Answer: d [Reason:] A storyboard is a design tool used to record the intended overall logic, flow, and structure of a multimedia presentation.

Set 5

1. Which principle specifies the relationship between enclosure of poles & zeros by s-plane contour and the encirclement of origin by q(s) plane contour?
a) Argument
b) Agreement
c) Assessment
d) Assortment

Answer: a [Reason:] Argument principle specifies the relationship between enclosure of poles & zeros by s-plane contour and the encirclement of origin by q(s) plane contour.

2. If a Nyquist plot of G (jω) H (jω) for a closed loop system passes through (-2, j0) point in GH plane, what would be the value of gain margin of the system in dB?
a) 0 dB
b) 2.0201 dB
c) 4 dB
d) 6.0205 dB

Answer: d [Reason:] Gain Margin is calculated by taking inverse of the gain where the Nyquist plot cuts the real axis.

3. For Nyquist contour, the size of radius is _______
a) 25
b) 0
c) 1
d) ∞

Answer: d [Reason:] For Nyquist contour, the size of radius is ∞.

4. Consider a feedback system with gain margin of about 30. At what point does Nyquist plot crosses negative real axis?
a) -3
b) -0.3
c) -30
d) -0.03

Answer: b [Reason:] Gain Margin is always inverse of the point which cuts the Nyquist on the real axis.

5. According to Nyquist stability criterion, where should be the position of all zeros of q(s) corresponding to s-plane?
a) On left half
b) At the center
c) On right half
d) Random

Answer: a [Reason:] According to Nyquist stability criterion zeroes must lie on the left half on the s plane.

6. If the system is represented by G(s) H(s) = k (s+7) / s (s +3) (s + 2), what would be its magnitude at ω = ∞?
a) 0
b) ∞
c) 7/10
d) 21

Answer: a [Reason:] On calculating the magnitude of the system and putting the value of frequency one gets the magnitude as 0.

7. Consider the system represented by the equation given below. What would be the total phase value at ω = 0?
200/[s3 (s + 3) (s + 6) (s + 10)].
a) -90°
b) -180°
c) -270°
d) -360°

Answer: c [Reason:] The phase can be calculated by the basic formula for calculating phase angle.

8. Due to an addition of pole at origin, the polar plot gets shifted by ___ at ω = 0 ?
a) -45°
b) -60°
c) -90°
d) -180°

9. In polar plots, if a pole is added at the origin, what would be the value of the magnitude at Ω = 0?
a) Zero
b) Infinity
c) Unity
d) Unpredictable