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Multiple choice question for engineering

Set 1

1. Fuzzy logic is :
a) Used to respond to questions in a humanlike way
b) A new programming language used to program animation
c) The result of fuzzy thinking
d) A term that indicates logical values greater than one

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Fuzzy logic allows users to respond to questions in a very humanlike way with proper thinking and analyzing capabilities.

2. A robot is a __________
a) Computer-controlled machine that mimics the motor activities of living things
b) Machine that thinks like a human
c) Machine that replaces a human by performing complex mental processing tasks
d) Type of virtual reality device that takes the place of humans in adventures

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Robots are computer-controlled machines that mimic the motor activities of living things.

3. Perception system robots are :
a) Act as a transportation system, like a “mail mobile”
b) Imitate some human senses
c) Perform manufacturing tasks like painting cars
d) Are another name for virtual reality

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Perception system robots imitate some of the human senses.

4. A mobile robot :
a) Acts as a transportation system, like a “mail mobile”
b) Imitates some human senses
c) Performs manufacturing tasks like painting cars
d) Is another name for virtual reality

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Mobile robots act as transports and are widely used for a variety of different tasks.

5. Computer-controlled machines that mimic the motor activities of living things are :
a) Virtual reality
b) Robotics
c) Knowledge-based systems
d) Machines that think like a human

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Robots are computer-controlled machines that mimic the motor activities of living things.

6. Robots used in automobile plants would be classified as :
a) Perception systems
b) Industrial robots
c) Mobile robots
d) Knowledge robots

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Industrial robots are used in automobile plants.

7. One difference between desktop publishing and word processing is that with desktop publishing you can mix text and graphics.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Desktop publishing allows you to mix text and graphics to create publications of professional quality.

8. Software that allows the user to create professional-quality layout and type styles is __________
a) Perception systems
b) desktop publishing
c) desktop editing
d) Knowledge robots

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Desktop publishing allows you to create publications of professional quality.

9. Graphic programs widely used in the graphic arts profession include __________
a) Desktop publishing programs, image editors and illustration programs
b) Artificial intelligence, virtual reality, and illustration programs
c) Mega media programs, image editors, and desktop publishing programs
d) Virtual reality, desktop publishing programs, and illustration programs

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The graphic arts profession would use desktop publishing, image editors and illustrator programs in their work.

10. One difference between desktop publishing and word processing is :
a) That desktop publishing allows you to create documents that have professional-quality layout and type styles
b) The first uses graphics, the second uses text
c) That word processing allows the user to add graphics to a document, desktop publishing doesn’t
d) Important because word processors work at the command line, but desktop processors work with graphics

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Desktop publishing allows you to mix text and graphics to create publications of professional quality.

Set 2

1. Heavy lifting work is often accomplished by shifting fluids in big machines. The power system of such machines can be described as
a) Reciprocating
b) Pneumatic
c) Hydraulic
d) Hybrid

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The power system of heavy and big machines can be described by hydraulic systems and heavy lifting work is often accomplished by shifting fluids in big machines.

2. The scientific principle that makes hydraulic systems possible is
a) Pascal’s principle
b) Boyle’s law
c) Bernoulli’s principle
d) The fluid flow principle

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Pascal’s principle is the basis of hydraulic system which states that the water exerts pressure in all direction.

3. Pneumatic and other power systems can support three kinds of motion; they are
a) Linear, reciprocating, and random motion
b) Linear, flowing, and rotary motion
c) Linear, zigzag, and spiral motion
d) Linear, reciprocating, and rotary motion

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Pneumatic systems are the systems that control the process where the motion is in air and can support linear, reciprocating, and rotary motion.

4. A single acting cylinder can be pressurized externally from one direction only.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Pressure variation is possible only if the force is acting from one direction if the force will be acting from multiple directions then the force cancellation is also possible.

5. A one-way valve that lets air into the reservoir of a compressor, but doesn’t let it out, is a
a) Check valve
b) Receiver valve
c) Control valve
d) Three way valve

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Check valve is a one-way valve that lets air into the reservoir of a compressor, but doesn’t let it out as the name indicates it allows air to enter as it has one entrance.

6. Series circuits work on both hydraulic and pneumatic actuators.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Series circuits are the circuits where the components are connected in series and the component is called lumped component and work for both hydraulic and pneumatic error detectors.

7. 5/2 way single solenoid valve has:
a) 2 ports 2 positions
b) 5 ports 2 positions
c) 5 ports 5 positions
d) 2 ports 5 positions

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] 5/2 way single solenoid valve is the valve in which the valve is in the shape of solenoid has 5 ports equally spaced and 2 flow positions.

8. The ____________________ converts the compressed air energy into mechanical energy in the form of linear movement in one direction only.
a) Piston cylinders
b) Double acting cylinders
c) Single acting cylinders
d) Hydraulic pumps

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Single acting cylinders converts the compressed air energy into mechanical energy in the form of linear movement in one direction only.

9. A _____________ restricts air flow.
a) Throttle valve
b) Shuttle valve
c) Directional control valve
d) Single acting cylinder

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Air valve is restricted by the valve it allows only that entry as desired and throttle valve restricts the airflow.

10. When the piston area of the cylinder is connected to the atmosphere, the piston of the single-acting cylinder is pressed by the spring to the ________________
a) Cylinder center
b) Cylinder down
c) Cylinder bottom
d) Cylinder upper

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Piston is the part in the cylinder that is used to create the pressure difference and in case of single-acting cylinder it is pressed by the spring to the cylinder center .

Set 3

1. In infinite time regulator for the final time is:
a) t1
b) t0
c) Infinite
d) Zero

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] In infinite time regulator is the extended version of the state regulator and the final time for the infinite time regulator is infinite in this case.

2. When time and the state variables tend to infinity then the system becomes:
a) Unstable
b) Stable
c) Marginally stable
d) Conditionally stable

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The terminal penalty term has no significance and it does not appear in the performance index and terminal time if tends to infinity then the system becomes stable.

3. In finite time regulator:
a) There is no restriction on the controllability of the plant
b) Performance index is infinite
c) Instability imposes problem in finite-interval control
d) No restriction on controllability and performance index

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] In finite time regulator there is no restriction on the controllability of the plant. This is because is always finite and instability does not impose any problems in finite-time control.

4. Performance index can become infinite if:
a) One or more state are uncontrollable
b) The uncontrollable states are uncontrollable
c) The unstable states are reflected in system performance index
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Performance index can become infinite if one or more states are uncontrollable and unstable states are reflected in system performance index.

5. In Infinite regulator the optimal control cannot be differentiated from other controls.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] In infinite regulator the optimal control may have same output for all the controls as the same solution for the infinite regulators will exist.

6. The differential term in the riccati equation in infinite regulator is:
a) Finite
b) Positive
c) Infinite
d) Zero

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] As the final time is not defined hence the differential term of the riccati equation becomes zero and the equation we get is the modified riccati equation.

7. The solution of the modified riccati equation may be:
a) Independent
b) Dependent
c) Unique
d) Non-unique

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The solution of the modified Riccati equation may not be unique as the solution depends upon the requirement that P must be positive and definite.

8. If Q is positive semi- definite:
a) The optimal closed loop system is asymptotically stable
b) The asymptotic stability is not guaranteed
c) The system is stable
d) The system is unstable

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] If the plant is controllable and bounded and in infinite state regulators the asymptotic stability is not guaranteed even if the Q is positive and semi-definite.

9. Tracking problem can be in:
a) Infinite state regulators
b) Finite state regulator
c) Sub-optimal state regulators
d) Non-linear regulators

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The application of the optimal regulators is that the minimum time, energy, fuel and tracking problems are designed.

10. The regulators that convert the non-linear stability into linear stability:
a) Linear
b) Sub-optimal
c) Finite
d) Infinite

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] In infinite state regulators stability is not guaranteed and hence the nonlinear stability is converted into to the linear stability.

Set 4

1. If the system is asymptotically stable irrespective that how close or far it is from the origin then the system is:
a) Asymptotically stable
b) Asymptotically stable in the large
c) Stable
d) Unstable

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] For the good control system system must be stable and if the system is asymptotically stable irrespective that how close or far it is from the origin then the system is asymptotically stable in large.

2. A system is said to be locally stable if:
a) The region S (e) is small
b) There exist a real number >0 such that || x (t0) || <=r
c) Every initial state x (t0) results in x (t) tends to zero as t tends to infinity
d) They are unstable

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] By the definition of Liapunov’s stability criteria a system is locally stable if the region of system is very small.

3. The system is asymptotically stable at the origin if :
a) It is stable
b) There exist a real number >0 such that || x (t0) || <=r
c) Every initial state x (t0) results in x (t) tends to zero as t tends to infinity
d) It is unstable

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] By the definition of Liapunov’s stability criteria the system is asymptotically stable at the origin if there exist a real number >0 such that || x (t0) || <=r and every initial state x (t0) results in x (t) tends to zero as t tends to infinity .

4. The system is asymptotically stable in the large at the origin if :
a) It is stable
b) There exist a real number >0 such that || x (t0) || <=r
c) Every initial state x (t0) results in x (t) tends to zero as t tends to infinity
d) Both a and c

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] By the definition of Liapunov’s stability criteria the system is asymptotically stable in the large at the origin if there exist a real number >0 such that || x (t0) || <=r and every initial state x (t0) results in x (t) tends to zero as t tends to infinity.

5. The stability of non-linear systems:
a) Disturbed steady state coming back to its equilibrium state
b) Non-linear systems to be in closed trajectory
c) In limit cycles that is oscillations of the systems
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] For the stability of non-linear systems as they differ from the linear systems as they have disturbed state coming back to its equilibrium and in closed trajectory and in limit cycles that is oscillations in the system.

6. The direct method of Liapunov is :
a) Concept of energy
b) Relation of stored energy
c) Using the equation of the autonomous systems
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Liapunov has two methods as direct and indirect and the direct method of Liapunov is using concept of energy, relation of stored energy and using the equation of the autonomous systems.

7. The results for the energy :
a) Energy of the system is non-negative
b) Energy of the system decreases as t increases
c) Energy is non-negative and decreases as t increases
d) Energy is negative

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Energy is defined as the work done or force which produces certain displacement and the results for the energy are that energy of the system in non-negative and it decreases as t increases.

8. The visual analogy of the Liapunov energy description is:
a) Ellipse
b) Circle
c) Square
d) Rectangle

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] For the results of the Liapunov energy the loci is traced by the Liapunov energy description and is a ellipse.

9. The idea that the non-negative scalar functions of a system state can also answer the question of stability was given in Liapunov function:
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The stability of the liapunov function can be determined with the help of the scalar functions of a system state.

10. The method of investigating the stability using Liapunov function as the ________________
a) Direct method
b) Indirect method
c) Not determined
d) Always unstable

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Liapunov’s stability is the major factor of the autonomous functions and it can be determined with the help of the direct method.

Set 5

1. Due to which of the following reasons excessive band width in control systems should be avoided?
a) It leads to slow speed of response
b) It leads to low relative stability
c) Noise is proportional to bandwidth
d) Presence of feedback

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Excessive Bandwidth causes increases in the noise with the same proportion as the bandwidth and hence noise is not good for any signal therefore the excessive bandwidth is not desirable.

2. In a stable control system backlash can cause which of the following?
a) Underdamping
b) Overdamping
c) Poor stability at reduced values of open loop gain
d) Low-level oscillations

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] In stable control systems backlash is the form of the error which may cause low level of the oscillations and hence can be useful sometimes as it increases the damping.

3. In an automatic control system which of the following elements is not used?
a) Error detector
b) Final control element
c) Sensor
d) Oscillator

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] In an automatic control system oscillator is not used because the oscillator increases the oscillations but our aim is to reduce the oscillations and hence oscillator is not used.

4. In a control system the output of the controller is given to
a) Final control element
b) Amplifier
c) Comparator
d) Sensor

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] In control system the output of the controller is given to the final control element it may be the plant or any other controller which-ever is used in the control circuit.

5. A controller, essentially, is a
a) Sensor
b) Clipper
c) Comparator
d) Amplifier

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] A controller is essentially the comparator which compares the given input with the reference input and generates the error signal.

6. Which of the following is the input to a controller?
a) Servo signal
b) Desired variable value
c) Error signal
d) Sensed signal

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Error signal is the input to the controller and it causes the output to be the desired output.

7. The on-off controller is a _____ system.
a) Digital
b) Linear
c) Non-linear
d) Discontinuous

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The on-off controller is discontinuous at the point when the system changes its state from on to off.

8. The capacitance, in force-current analogy, is analogous to
a) Momentum
b) Velocity
c) Displacement
d) Mass

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The capacitance in the force current is analogous to the mass and this analogy is also called parallel analogy as mostly all the elements are parallel.

9. The temperature, under thermal and electrical system analogy, is considered analogous to
a) Voltage
b) Current
c) Capacitance
d) Charge

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The temperature under thermal and electrical system analogy is considered analogous to the voltage and is similar to the Force voltage analogy.

10. In electrical-pneumatic system analogy the current is considered analogous to
a) Velocity
b) Pressure
c) Air flow
d) Air flow rate

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] In electrical-pneumatic system analogy the current is analogous to the air-flow rate.

11. The use of feedback element in the feedback loop is:
a) It converts the output variable ‘c’ to another suitable feedback variable ‘b’ to compare with the input command signal.
b) It is the actuating element
c) To increase the stability
d) None of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The feedback can be positive and negative and so applied is to produce the error signal so as to get the desired output.

12. The major components of a controller are:
a) Control element
b) Error detector and control element
c) Feedback element
d) Error detector and feedback element

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Controller is the extra block used in the system to get the desired characteristics and consists of two major components as the error detector and control element in the forward path.

13. Practically all the elements are:
a) Linear
b) Non-linear
c) Exponential
d) None of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] It is not practically possible to achieve linear elements as there is some error present so practically all the elements present are non-linear but can be made linear only to some extent.

14. The need of assuming non-linear element as linear:
a) Simplicity of analysis and accuracy of results
b) Ease of calculations
c) Less time consuming
d) Mathematical tool available

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] All the mathematical tools are available as per ideal cases so it is necessary to make assumptions for non-ideal to be nearly ideal and hence do the necessary calculations as needed.

15. A non-linear element can be treated as the linear element.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] It is possible to make non-linear elements linear to make necessary calculations as practically non-linear elements are present and we make certain assumptions to make them linear.