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Multiple choice question for engineering

Set 1

1. An analysis of the condition of complete bearing capacity failure is usually termed as___________
a) General shear failure
b) Terzaghi’s analysis
c) Bearing failure
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: a [Reason:] An analysis of the condition of complete bearing capacity failure is termed as general shear failure, can be made by assuming that the soil behaves like an ideally plastic failure.

2. The concept of analysis of bearing capacity failure was first developed by___________
a) Terzaghi
b) Meyerhof
c) Prandtl
d) Darcy

Answer: c [Reason:] The concept of failure analysis was first developed by Prandtl, and later extended by Terzaghi, Meyerhof and others.

3. For purely cohesive soil, the bearing capacity is given by which of the following equation?
a) qf = 5.7 c + σ̅
b) qf = c + σ̅
c) qf = 5.7 c
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: a [Reason:] For purely cohesive soil the bearing capacity is qf = c Nc + σ̅ Nq = 5.7 c + σ̅ Where σ̅ = γ D if the water table is below the base of the footing.

4. The parameters Nc, Nq, Nγ in the equations of bearing capacity failure are known as_________
b) Bearing capacity factors
c) Effective pressure

Answer: b [Reason:] The parameters Nc, Nq, Nγ are the dimensionless numbers, known as bearing capacity factors depending only on the angle of shearing resistance of the soil.

5. For purely cohesive soil, local shear failure may be assumed to occur when the soil is___________
a) Medium to soft
b) Soft to medium
c) Hard
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: b [Reason:] For purely cohesive soil, local shear failure may be assumed to occur when the soil is soft to medium, with an unconfined compressive strength qu ≤ 100 kN/m2.

6. Which of the following is a limitation, of assumption in Terzaghi’s analysis?
a) φ changes when the soil is compressed and strip footing has a rough base
b) Soil is homogeneous
c) None of the mentioned
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: a [Reason:] As the soil compress, φ changes; slight downward movement of footing may not develop fully the plastic planes.

7. Which of the following are original Terzaghi values for Nγ?
a) 34° and 48°
b) 60°
c) None of the mentioned
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: a [Reason:] The values of Nγ for φ of 34° and 48° are the original Terzaghi values which were used by Bowles to back compute Kpγ.

8. According to the assumptions in Terzaghi’s analysis, the soil is_______________
a) Homogeneous and Isotropic
b) Non Homogeneous
c) None of the mentioned
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: a [Reason:] In Terzaghi’s analysis the soil is homogeneous and isotropic and its shear strength is represented by Coulomb’s equation.

9. The Terzaghi’s general bearing capacity equation is represented as___________
a) qf = 5.7 c + σ̅
b) qf = c Nc + σ̅. Nq + 0.5γBNγ
c) qf = c Nc + σ̅. Nq
d) qf = c Nc

Answer: b [Reason:] “qf = c Nc + σ̅. Nq + 0.5γBNγ” is known as Terzaghi’s general bearing capacity equation for a continuous footing.

10. Local shear failure generally occurs in___________
a) Dense sand
b) Non-cohesive soil
c) Loose sand
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: c [Reason:] Local shear failure generally occurs in loose sand while general shear failure occurs in dense sand.

11. The curve for Nq and Nγ for the transition state from φ = 28° and φ = 38° was given by__________
a) Peck
b) Hanson
c) Thorn burn
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: d [Reason:] Peck, Hansen, and Thorn burn gave curves for Nq and Nγ for the transition state from φ = 28° and φ = 38°, in which they assumed general shear failure when φ > 28°.

12. Terzaghi’s bearing capacity equation is not applicable for____________
a) Depth effect and Inclination factor
b) Narrow slope
c) None of the mentioned
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: a [Reason:] Terzaghi assumed the value of angle ψ = φ, which is not true. Since footings are normally rough, ψ has been found close to 45° + φ/2 than to φ, thus Terzaghi’s bearing capacity equations do not have provision for including depth effects, inclination factors, etc.

Set 2

1. The standard proctor test was developed by___________
a) Darcy
b) Terzaghi
c) Proctor
d) Rendulic

Answer: c [Reason:] The standard proctor test was developed by R.R.Proctor in 1933 for the construction of earth fill dams in the state of California.

2. The compaction process can be accomplished by___________process.
a) Rolling
b) Tampering
c) Vibration
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: d [Reason:] Compaction can be done by rolling, tamping or vibration by a steel-tyred or rubber-tyred roller.

3. The compaction energy used for standard proctor test is___________
a) 595 kJ/m3
b) 300 kJ/m3
c) 6065 kJ/m3
d) 1000 kJ/m3

Answer: a [Reason:] The compaction energy used in the proctor test is 6065 kg cm per 1000 ml of soil which is equal to 595kJ/m3.

4. Which of the following test are used in the laboratory, for compaction?
a) Vibration test
b) Standard proctor test and Jodhpur-mini compactor test
c) None of the mentioned
d) All of the mentioned

Answer:b [Reason:] Some of the compaction tests used in the laboratory is: standard and modified proctor test, Harvard Miniature compaction test, Abbot Compaction test and Jodhpur-mini compactor test.

5. A line showing the water content dry density relation for the compacted soil is___________
a) Zero air voids lines
b) Air-voids line
c) Density line
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: b [Reason:] Air-voids line is a line which shows the water content dry density relation for the compacted soil containing a constant percentage of air voids.

6. Which of the following equipment is not used in standard compactor test?
a) Cylindrical metal mould
b) Rammer
c) Circular face plate
d) Collar

Answer: c [Reason:] The compactor test equipment consists of: cylindrical metal mould, detachable base plate, collar, rammer of 2.5kg.

7. The initial percentage of water content taken for coarse-grained soil in proctor test is__________
a) 4
b) 10
c) 25
d) 50

Answer: a [Reason:] The initial water content may be taken as 4 % for coarse-grained soils and 10 % for fine-grained soils as the quantity of water to be added for the first test depends on the probable optimum water content for the soil.

8. The water content corresponding to the maximum density in compaction curve is called____________
a) Water content of compacted soil
b) Optimum water content
c) Air void water content
d) None of the mentioned

Answer: b [Reason:] The water content goes on increasing till the maximum density is reached. The water content corresponding to the maximum density is called optimum water content W0.

9. The modified compactor test is also known as__________
a) Standard compactor test
b) AASHO test
c) Dietert test
d) Compaction test

Answer: b [Reason:] The modified compactor test was standardized by the American Associates of State highway officials and is known as the modified AASHO test.

10. In standard compactor test, soil is compacted into_____________layers.
a) 2
b) 4
c) 3
d) 5

Answer: c [Reason:] The standard compactor test consists of compacting the soil at various water contents in the mould, in three equal layers, each layer being given 25 blows from the rammer.

Set 3

1. Soil classification based on the particle size distribution is_____________
a) Unified soil classification
b) IS classification
c) Particle size classification
d) Textural classification

Answer: d [Reason:] Soil classification of composite soils exclusively based on the particle size distribution is known as textural classification.

2. The best known classification system in textural classification is__________
a) M.I.T. classification system
c) Indian classification system
d) International classification

Answer: b [Reason:] Triangular classification of U.S. public road administration is a commonly used system for textural classification.

3. Textural classification is most suitable for____________
a) Clay soil
b) Wet soil
c) Coarse grained soil
d) Soil with moist

Answer: c [Reason:] Since the textural classification is based on the percentages of sand, silt, and clay size making up the soil .such a classification is more suitable for describing coarse-grained soil.

4. To use textural classification chart,___________lines must be drawn.
a) Parallel to the three sides of the triangle
b) Parallel to the only one side of the triangle
c) Adjacent to the three sides of the triangle
d) Adjacent to the one sides of the triangle

Answer: a [Reason:] to use the textural classification chart, for a given percentages of three constituents forming a soil, lines are drawn parallel to three sides of the equilateral triangle.

5. The type of triangle, used in textural classification of soil is_____________
a) Right angled triangle
b) Equilateral triangle
c) Perpendicular triangle
d) None of the mentioned

Answer: b [Reason:] A triangle, having equal length of sides (i.e. Equilateral triangle) is used in textural classification chart.

a) Particle-size composition and Plasticity characteristics
b) Particle size distribution
c) All of the mentioned
d) None of the mentioned

Answer: a [Reason:] HRB classification system, also known as public road administration (PRA) is based on both the particle-size composition and plasticity characteristics.

7. Highway research board (HRB) classification system is also known as__________
a) Indian classification system
c) International classification system
d) M.I.T. classification system

Answer: b [Reason:] Highway research board classification system is also known as public road administration (PRA) system.

8. Based on HRB classification system, the soil are divided in to___________
a) 2 primary groups
b) 6 primary groups
c) 7 primary groups
d) 6 primary groups

Answer: c [Reason:] Based on HRB system, the soil is divided into 7 primary groups, designated as A-1, A-2…A-7.

9. The performance of the soil, when used for pavement construction is found out by using_____________
a) Quality test
b) Group index
c) Material test
d) None of the mentioned

Answer: b [Reason:] As group index is a mean of rating the value of a soil as a sub-grade material It can be used for finding the performance and quality of the soil.

10. The group index of a soil depends on____________
a) Liquid limit
b) Plastic limit
c) All of the mentioned
d) None of the mentioned

Answer: a [Reason:] Group index of a soil usually varies by 1. Liquid limit 2. Plastic limit 3. Amount of material passing through the 75-micron IS sieve.

11. Group index is defined by which of the equation?
a) GI=0.2b+0.005ac+0.01bd
b) GI=0.2a+0.005bd+0.001ac
c) GI=0.2a+0.005ac+0.001bd
d) GI=0.2a+0.5ac+0.001bd

Answer: c [Reason:] Group index (GI) is given by the following equation GI = 0.2a+0.005ac+0.01bd.

Set 4

1. The Tri axial compression test was introduced by__________
a) A. casagrande and Karl Terzaghi
b) Mohr
c) None of the mentioned
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: a [Reason:] The tri axial compression test was first introduced in U.S.A by A. casagrande and Karl Terzaghi in 1936-37.

2. Which of the following strength test is commonly used in laboratory?
a) Direct shear test
b) Confined compression test
c) Tri axial shear test
d) Unconfined shear test

Answer: c [Reason:] As shear test can be performed under all three drainage condition, tri axial test is most commonly used in research laboratory.

3. Which of the following outlet is provided at the base of the tri axial test apparatus?
a) Cell fluid inlet
b) Pore water outlet
c) Drainage outlet
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: d [Reason:] Three outlet connections are generally provided through the base of the test apparatus: cell fluid test, pore water outlet from the bottom of the specimen and the drainage outlet from the bottom of the specimen.

4. Pore pressure developed in the tri axial test can be measured by____________
a) Bishop’s apparatus
b) Pore pressure apparatus
c) Terzaghi’s apparatus
d) Mohr’s apparatus

Answer: a [Reason:] Pore pressure developed in the specimen during the test can be measured with the help of a separate pore pressure measuring equipment such as Bishop’s pore pressure apparatus developed by Bishop in 1950, 1961.

5. Bishop’s apparatus does not contain which one of the following equipment?
a) Porous disc
b) Top cap
c) Rollers
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: d [Reason:] Bishop’s apparatus mainly consists of the null indicator, the control cylinder, pressure gauge, mercury manometer and burette.

6. The vertical stress on the solid cylindrical test apparatus is applied by____________
a) Major principal stress
b) Minor principal stress
c) Intermediate principal stress
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: a [Reason:] In tri axial test, the major principle stress σ1 is applied in the vertical direction, and the other two principal stresses σ and σ are applied in the horizontal direction by the fluid pressure round the specimen.

7. The deviator stress developed in the proving ring, through the applied pressure is equal to____________
a) σ1 + σ3
b) σ1 – σ3
c) σ2 – σ3
d) σ2 + σ1

Answer: b [Reason:] The vertical stress applied by the loading frame, through the proving ring is equal to (σ1 – σ3); this stress difference is called the deviator stress.

8. When the sol is in the state of stress, it is said to be in_____________
a) Constant state
b) Plastic equilibrium
c) Stress conditioned state
d) Equilibrium condition

Answer: b [Reason:] When the soil is in the state of stress defined by the equation σ1’= σ3’tan2 α’ + 2c’ tan α’ as principal stress relationship, it is said to be in plastic equilibrium.

9. The deviator stress σd is given by__________
a) σd= σ1 + σ
b) σd= σ3 – σ1
d) σd= σ1 -σ3

Answer: c [Reason:] The deviator stress σd, is given as the ratio of additional axial load to the area A2 at failure or during at any stage of the test.

10. Which of the following is an advantage of using tri axial test?
a) Accurate result is not possible
b) The plane of shear failure is predetermined
c) Stress conditions is complex
d) Precise measurement

Answer: d [Reason:] In tri axial test, precise measurements of the pore pressure and volume change during the test are possible.

Set 5

1. What are the types of flow head that exist at any point in a saturated soil mass?
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: d [Reason:] When water flows through a saturated soil mass ,the total head at any point in the soil mass consist of i)piezometric head or pressure head ii) the velocity y head iii)the position head.

2. The quantity of water, flowing through a saturated soil mass can be estimated by which of the following theory?
a) Flow of fluids through porous medium
b) Theoretical analysis of Laplace
c) Flow of water through saturated soil mass
d) None of the mentioned

Answer: a [Reason:] The quantity of water flowing through a saturated soil mass, as well as the distribution of water pressure can be estimated by the theory of fluids through porous medium.

3. According to theory of flow of fluids through porous medium ,the saturated porous medium is___________
a) Compressible
b) Incompressible
c) Moderately compressible
d) Highly compressible

Answer: b [Reason:] The size of the pore spaces in saturated soil mass does not change with time, regardless of water pressure. Therefore the saturated porous medium is incompressible.

4. The quantity of water which flows out from any element of volume is_________than quantity which flows out.
a) Greater
b) smaller
c) Equal
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: c [Reason:] According to the theoretical analysis of flow of fluids, the quantity of water flowing into any element of volume is equal to the quantity which flows out in the same length of time.

5. In the zone of soil through which water seeps , there will be____________change in the degree of saturation.
a) More
b) Less
c) All of the mentioned
d) None of the mentioned

Answer: d [Reason:] There is no change in the degree of saturation in the zone of soil through which water seeps.

6. The path along which ,the individual particles of water seep through the soil are___________
a) Stream lines and Flow lines
b) Equipotential lines
c) None of the mentioned
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: a [Reason:] The direction of seepage is always perpendicular to the equipotential line. But both equipotential line and stream line (flow line) is mutually orthogonal .So the individual particle of the water seep through stream line.

7. The solution of velocity potential φ can be obtained by which of the following methods?
a) Analytical methods
b) Graphical methods
c) Experimental methods
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: d [Reason:] solution for velocity potential equation can be obtained from analytical, graphical and experimental methods which give two set of curves.

8. The loss of head per unit distance in soil is called___________
a) Velocity potential
d) Stream function

Answer: b [Reason:] The loss of head or the dissipation of the hydraulic head per unit distance of flow through the soil is called hydraulic gradient i.e. i=h/L.

9. Seepage pressure is important for which of the following purpose?
a) Stability analysis
b) Structral arrangement
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: a [Reason:] The seepage structure is vital importance in the stability analysis of earth structures subjected to the action of seepage.

10. The total head at any point on a soil may be regarded as__________per unit weight of water measured.
a) Velocity energy
b) Hydraulic potential
c) Potential energy
d) Piezometric energy

Answer: b [Reason:] Flow occurs between two points only when there is a difference in the potential energies or simply potential.

11. A combination of velocity potential (φ) and stream function (ψ) is called___________
a) Velocity potential
b) Seepage pressure
c) Complex potential