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Multiple choice question for engineering

Set 1

1. The foundation that is used when the soil mass is sufficiently erratic?
a) Strap footing
b) Combined footing
c) Mat footing
d) Rectangular combined footing

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Mat footing is used where the soil contains compressible lenses or the soil is sufficiently erratic so that the differential settlement would be difficult to control.

2. Usually, rafts are designed as_________
a) Reinforced slabs
b) Reinforced concrete flat slabs
c) Ordinary concrete slab
d) Inverted flat slabs

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Ordinarily, rafts are designed as reinforced concrete flat slabs using heavy beams.

3. The weight of the raft is not considered in the structural design, because___________
a) Weight is carried by subsoil
b) Raft does not remain contact with soil
c) The weight is transferred to column
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The weight of the raft is not considered in the structural design because it is assumed to be carried by directly by the subsoil.

4. If a maximum settlement of 50 mm is permitted for a raft, the differential settlement must not exceed___________
a) 30 mm
b) 10 mm
c) 20 mm
d) 25 mm

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] A raft may undergo large settlement without causing harmful differential settlement. For this reason, almost double settlement of that permitted for footing is acceptable for raft. Therefore if a maximum settlement of 50 mm (2 in) is permitted for a raft, the differential settlement is not likely to exceed 20 mm (0.75 in).

5. The net ultimate bearing capacity for raft may be determined by__________
a) Skempton’s equation and Terzaghi’s equation
b) Darcy’s equation
c) None of the mentioned
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The net ultimate bearing capacity may be determined from both Skempton and Terzaghi’s equation as given below: i) Skempton’s equation: q nf = 5 [1 + 0.2D/B ] [1 + 0.2B/L]c ii) Terzaghi’s equation: q nf = 5.7[ 1 + 0.3B/L]c.

6. In raft footing, if the C.G of the load coincide with the centroid of the raft, the upward load is considered as ___________
a) Non uniform pressure
b) Uniform pressure
c) Excess pressure
d) None of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] If the Center of gravity of the load coincides with the centroid of the raft, the upward load is regarded as a uniform pressure, which will be equal to the downward load divided by the area of the raft.

7. Raft is subdivided in to series of beams to establish__________
a) Shear failure and Moment diagrams
b) Pressure distribution
c) None of the mentioned
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The raft is subdivided into a series of continuous beams (strips) centered on the appropriate column rows to establish shear failure and moment diagram.

8. The penetration resistance N for designing of raft should be taken at___________intervals.
a) 50 cm
b) 60 cm
c) 75 cm
d) 20 cm

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The penetration resistance N values should be taken at 75 cm intervals for depth equal to width of the raft, below the base of the raft.

9. If the penetration resistance N is less than 5, which of the following measures can be adopted?
a) Using piles and piers and Compacting sand
b) Using inverted flat slab
c) None of the mentioned
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] If N is less than 5, sand should be compacted by artificial means to rise N above 10, or else piles or piers should be used.

10. The net pressure can be calculated for raft having width greater than___________
a) 6 m
b) 20 cm
c) 30 cm
d) 4 m

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Based on the settlement criterion for raft, the net pressure can be calculated from the following equation having its width greater than 6m. qp = 20(N-3) Rw2 kN/m2.

Set 2

1. Stabilisation of soils are most commonly used in __________ engineering works.
a) Air-field pavements
b) Foundations of buildings
c) Pile construction
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The most common application of stabilisation is in the construction of roads and air-field pavements.

2. Method of stabilisation can be grouped under________ main types.
a) Three
b) two
c) one
d) four

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Method of stabilisation may be grouped under two main categories: a) modification of soil property of existing soil without any admixture b) modification of soil property with the help of admixtures.

3. Example of modification of soil property with the help of admixtures is_________
a) Compaction
b) Drainage
c) Mechanical stabilisation
d) Particle size distribution

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Example of modification of soil property with the help of admixtures is: mechanical stabilization, stabilization with cement, lime, bitumen and chemicals etc.

4. The important factors that governs the engineering behavior of soil are_________
a) Densification
b) stabilisation
c) Tensile strength
d) Particle size distribution

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The particle size distribution and composition are the important factors governing the engineering behavior of soil.

5. Mechanical stabilisation of soil involves which of the following operation?
a) Compaction and Changing the composition of soil
b) Leveling
c) None of the mentioned
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Mechanical stabilisation involves two operations: i) changing the composition of soil by addition or removal of certain constituents, and ii) densification or compaction.

6. For mechanical stabilized bases, liquid limit should not exceed__________
a) 35 %
b) 25 %
c) 50 %
d) 10 %

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] For bases, liquid limit should not exceed 25 % and plasticity index must not exceed 6.

7. The properties of a soil under compaction depend upon_________
a) Swelling
b) Placement condition
c) Water content
d) Permeability

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The properties of a soil under compaction depend upon the water content, amount of compaction, and the type of compaction.

8. The properties of soil that are affected by compaction are__________
a) Swelling
b) Water absorption
c) Permeability
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Compaction has a great effect on soil properties, such as strength and stress-strain characteristics, permeability, compression, swelling, and water absorption.

9. The soil stabilised with cement is called_________
a) Lime cement
b) Soil cement
c) Cementing soil
d) None of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The soil stabilised with cement (Portland cement) is usually known as soil cement.

10. The important factor affecting soil cement is________
a) Admixtures
b) Swelling
c) Water absorption
d) Permeability

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The important factors affecting the soil cement are: nature of soil, cement content, condition s of mixing, compaction and curing and admixtures.

11. The binding action of individual particles through cement is possible only in__________ type of soil?
a) Fine-grained soil
b) Clayey soil
c) Coarse-grained soil
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The binding action of individual particles through cement may be only possible in coarse-grained soil. In fine-grained, cohesive soils, only some of the particles can be expected to have cement bonds, and the rest may be bonded through natural cohesion.

Set 3

1. Hand auger can be used for depths up to________
a) 7 m
b) 6 m
c) 2 m
d) 10 m

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Mechanical augers are used for greater depth and Hand augers are used for depth up to 6 m.

2. Auger boring is used in __________ type of soil.
a) Cohesion less soil
b) Cohesive soil
c) Coarse-grained soil
d) Pervious soil

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Augers are used in cohesive and other soft soils above water table.

3. The type of boring, used for making deep excavations is _________
a) Cylindrical augers
b) Percussion boring
c) Rotary boring
d) Wash boring

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Cylindrical augers and shell with cutting edge on teeth at the lower end can be used for making deep boring.

4. Which of the following method is adopted for fast boring?
a) Cylindrical augers
b) Percussion boring
c) Rotary boring
d) Wash boring

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Wash boring is a fast and simple method for advancing holes for all types of soils.

5. Rotary boring can also be called as ___________
a) Percussion boring
b) Wash boring
c) Core boring
d) Pit boring

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Rotary borings are used for rotary drilling and simultaneously obtaining the rock cores or samples. The method is then also known as core boring or core drilling.

6. Auger boring is most suitable for __________ type of work.
a) Air field pavement
b) Highway exploration
c) Dam construction
d) Buildings

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Auger boring is fairly satisfactory for highway explorations at shallow depths and for exploring borrow pits.

7. Wash boring cannot be used for _________ type of soil strata.
a) Cohesive soil
b) Cohesion less soil
c) Boulder
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Wash boring cannot be used for strata containing boulders and rocks, as they cannot be penetrated by this method.

8. Mud rotary drilling belongs to _________ type of boring method.
a) Percussion boring
b) Rotary boring
c) Wash boring
d) Auger boring

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] A drilling mud is forced downed in rotary boring, hence the method is also known as mud rotary drilling.

9. The Instruments used in hand augers are_________
a) Post hole auger
b) Sand pump
c) Wash boring apparatus
d) Stationary piston

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Helical auger and Post hole auger are the common type of Hand auger in use.

10. The type of boring method that can be used for both rock and soils are________
a) Shell boring
b) Wash boring
c) Auger boring
d) Rotary boring

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Rotary boring or rotary drilling is a very fast method of advancing hole in both rocks and soil by drill rod.

11. The commonly used geophysical method for site exploration is________
a) Gravitational method
b) Electrical resistivity
c) Magnetic method
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The electrical resistivity and seismic refraction methods are the most commonly used for civil engineering purposes.

12. Electrical resistivity method is based on measurement of _____________
a) Specific resistance
b) Voltage
c) Potential drop
d) Current

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The electrical resistivity method is based on the measurement and recording of changes in the mean resistivity or apparent specific resistance of the various soils.

13. The method used for studying of horizontal changes in the sub-soil is_______
a) Resistive soundings
b) Resistive mapping
c) Mean resistivity
d) Critical distance

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] For knowing the horizontal changes in the sub-soil, the electrodes kept at a constant spacing are moved as a group along the line of test. This method is known as resistive mapping.

14. The commonly used penetration test are_______
a) IS penetration test
b) Cone penetration test
c) Dutch standard test
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Standard penetration test and the cone penetration test is the two commonly used penetration test.

15. In seismic refraction method, the waves sent along the ground surface is picked by _________
a) Geo satellite instrument
b) Geophone
c) Wave detector
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The radiating shock waves created in to the soil at the ground level are picked up by the vibration detector known as geophone.

Set 4

1. Ground water may be also called as___________
a) Capillary water
b) Gravitational water and Free water
c) None of the mentioned
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Since the ground water is subjected to no forces other than gravity. Hence the water is also known as gravitational water or free water.

2. Water present in the voids of soil mass is called__________
a) Soil water
b) Free water
c) Ground water
d) Pore water

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Soil water is the water present in the voids of soil mass.

3. Hygroscopic water is affected by which of the following factor?
a) Gravity
b) Capillary forces
c) All of the mentioned
d) None of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Since hygroscopic water has greater density and viscosity than ordinary water.it is neither affected by gravity or capillary forces or by any other force.

4. What are the forces involved in hygroscopic water or contact moisture?
a) Adhesion force
b) Capillary force
c) All of the mentioned
d) None of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] In hygroscopic water, soil particle freely adsorb water from atmosphere by the physical force of attraction, and is held by adhesion force.

5. The average hygroscopicity of clay is___________
a) 6 %
b) 16 %
c) 1 %
d) 4 %

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The average hygroscopicity of sands, silts and clay is 1 %, 6 % and 16 %.

6. The water which soaks in to ground by moving downward ,subjected to capillary force is ___________
a) Ground water
b) Pore water
c) Infiltrated water
d) Capillary water

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Infiltrated water is the portion of surface precipitation which soaks into ground moving downward through air-containing zones.

7. Based on inter-particle forces, soil water can be classified in to__________
a) Adsorbed water
b) Pore water
c) All of the mentioned
d) None of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Adsorbed water which is attracted by forces within the soil and pore water are the two types of soil water divided based on inter-particle forces.

8. Solvate water is subjected to__________forces.
a) Polar
b) Electrostatic
c) Binding
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Since the solvate water forms a hydration shells around soil grain. It is influenced by ionic and polar forces.

9. The soil water which is impossible to remove from the soil is___________
a) Structural water
b) Capillary water
c) Solvate water
d) Pore water

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Under loading encountered in soil engineering, it is found out that structural water cannot be separated or removed and therefore it is considered as a part and parcel of the soil particle.

10. Ground water is influenced by____________force.
a) Vander Waals force
b) Surface force
c) Hydrodynamic force
d) Electro static force

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] As the ground water obeys laws of hydraulic force, it is capable of moving under hydrodynamic forces.

11. Water can be classified in to__________types based on structural aspect.
a) 3
b) 5
c) 2
d) 4

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Structural classifications of water in soil are 4 types, which are: pore water, solvate water, adsorbed water, structural water.

Set 5

1. The Mohr’s theory of failure can be symbolically expressed as____________
a) τmax=F(σn) and σmax–σmin =f(σmax +σmin)
b) τmax = σmax– σmin
c) None of the mentioned
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Mohr’s theory of failure can be symbolically expressed as: σmax–σmin =f (σmax +σmin) or τmax=f (σn).

2. The concept of a three dimension yield envelope was presented by_________
a) D.C. Drucker and Prager
b) Mohr
c) None of the mentioned
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] the effect of intermediate principal was studied by D.C. Drucker and W. Prager in 1952, who proposed the concept of a three dimensional yield envelope.

3. A major drawback of Mohr criterion is____________
a) Shape of the envelope
b) Principal stress
c) Shape of the plane
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The major drawback of Mohr criterion is that the curved shape of the envelope, hence the functional form of the equation τmax=F (σn) is not amendable to mathematical computation.

4. The yield or failure criterion can be expressed as____________
a) f(I1,I2)=0
b) f(I1,I2,I3)=0
c) f(σ1,σ2,σ3)=0
d) f(σmax +σmin)

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The yield criterion may be expressed as f (I1, I2, I3) =0 Where I1, I2, I3 are the invariant of stress.

5. If the auxiliary plane in hydrostatic axis passes through the origin, then its equation is_____________
a) σ1+σ2+σ3=0
b) σ1+σ2+σ3=constant
c) I1+ I2+I3 =0
d) f(σ1,σ2,σ3)=0

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] If the auxiliary plane passes through the origin its equation is σ1+σ2+σ3=0 and equation will be σ1+σ2+σ3=constant if the plane is perpendicular to the hydrostatic axis.

6. The intersection of the yield surface or envelope with octahedral plane is called____________
a) Yield point
b) Deviation point
c) Failure locus
d) Space diagonal

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The intersection of yield surface with octahedral plane is called the failure locus .A point on the failure locus represents the stress state at incipient failure.

7. The hydrostatic pressure’s inability to produce failure under normal pressure was first demonstrated by___________
a) Cross land
b) W. Pager
c) D.C. Drucker
d) Mohr

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Experiments conducted by Cross land in 1965 have demonstrated that a pure state of hydrostatic pressure is unable to produce failure even under enormous pressure.

8. Which of the following equation represent hydrostatic pressure in its purest form?
a) σ1+σ2+σ3=0
b) σ1+σ2+σ3=constant
c) σ1=σ2=σ3
d) σmax+ σmin

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] According to cross land σ1=σ2=σ3 represent hydrostatic pressure in its purest form.

9. The Mohr-Coulomb criterion assumes that the strength of the soil is independent of____________
a) σ1
b) σ2
c) σ3
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The Mohr-Coulomb criterion implicitly assumes that the strength is independent of the intermediate principal stress σ2.

10. The auxiliary plane in the hydrostatic axis can also be called as___________
a) Failure plane
b) Octahedral plane
c) Deviatoric plane
d) Principal plane

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Since all the points in the auxiliary plane represent deviatorial state of stress, the plane is also called the deviatoric plane.