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# Multiple choice question for engineering

## Set 1

1. The capillary tension or capillary potential can also be called as___________
a) Pressure deficiency
b) Pressure reduction
c) Negative pressure
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: d [Reason:] The capillary potential is the pressure deficiency, pressure reduction or negative pressure in the pore water.

2. The maximum tensile stress of water in capillary tube is___________
a) Proportional to the diameter of tube
b) Inversely proportional to height of capillary rise
c) Inversely proportional to the radius of meniscus
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: c [Reason:] From the formula, (UC) max = 2Ts /R Where, (UC) max = maximum tensile stress R = radius of meniscus TS = surface tension.

3. The pF value of 2 in soil mass represent____________
a) Soil suction of 200 cm of water
b) Suction pressure of 100 g/cm2
c) Soil suction of 100 cm of water
d) Capillarity of 100 g/cm2

Answer: c [Reason:] From the relationship, pF=log10 ( hc ) 2 = log10 (hc) hc =2/log10 hc =100 cm.

4. The pressure deficiency of held water in a capillary tube is termed as____________
a) Soil suction and suction pressure
b) Negative pressure
c) None of the mentioned
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: a [Reason:] As the water is decreased linearly in the tube due to the suction of soil mass .the pressure deficiency is also called as soil suction or suction pressure.

5. Which one of the following factor does not affect soil suction?
a) Water content
b) Temperature
c) Plasticity index of a soil
d) Atmospheric pressure

Answer: d [Reason:] As the atmospheric pressure, does not have any effect on water in the soil mass .it does not contribute to the affecting factor.

6. The soil suction is maximum ,when angle of contact(α) is_____________
a) α=0
b) α=90
c) α=60
d) α=1

Answer: a [Reason:] As soil suction depend on capillary height (hC) Using the formula hc=4Tscos α/γw d When α=0 hc = 4Ts/γw d ,which is maximum.

7. Rise in temperature___________soil suction.
a) Decreases
b) Increases
c) Removed
d) None of the mentioned

Answer: a [Reason:] Rise in temperature results in decrease of surface tension (TC) and hence decrease in soil suction.

8. Capillary tension is developed in saturated soil, when___________
a) Soil is dry
b) Water content is reduced
c) Water content is increased
d) Soil particle is large

Answer: b [Reason:] On decreasing of water content, the menisci recede, resulting in reduction of curvature and corresponding increase in capillary tension.

9. When do the soil suction is reduced to zero value?
a) Water content is reduced
b) Soil is oven dry
c) Dry soil is submerged
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: c [Reason:] When a dry soil is submerged under water, meniscus is destroyed resulting in a reduction of soil suction to zero value.

10. The size of interstices in a soil depends on____________
a) Particle size
b) Plasticity index
c) Soil structure
d) Angle of contact

Answer: c [Reason:] Change in structure of the soil, changes the size of interstices in a soil, resulting in soil suction variation.

11. The capillary pressure , transferred from grain to grain in soil may be also called as____________
a) Inter granular pressure
b) Contact pressure
c) Effective pressure
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: d [Reason:] Inter granular or contact or effective pressure is the capillary pressure, transferred from grain to grain in soil.

## Set 2

1. In the friction circle method, it is assumed that the resultant reaction is___________to the friction circle.
a) Perpendicular
b) Tangential
c) Parallel
d) None of the mentioned

Answer: c [Reason:] In the friction circle method, it is assumed that the resultant reaction is tangential in the friction circle, since the error involved in this assumption is of small magnitude.

2. The friction circle may be also referred as__________
a) φ-circle
b) Plane circle
c) Cohesion circle
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: a [Reason:] The friction circle having radius r sin φ is also called as φ-circle.

3. A circle is considered to be a critical slip circle, if it has___________
a) Maximum factor of safety
b) Minimum factor of safety
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: b [Reason:] The circle giving minimum factor of safety Fc is considered as a critical slip circle.

4. The factor of safety with respect to cohesion is given by the equation____________
a) FC = HC / H
b) FC = C / Cm
c) FC = τf / τ
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: b [Reason:] The factor of safety Fc with respect to cohesive strength, based on the assumption that the frictional strength has been fully mobilized, is given by FC = C / Cm.

5. The friction circle method assumes the failure surface as___________
a) Cycloid
b) Curve
c) Arc of circle
d) None of the mentioned

Answer: c [Reason:] Similar to Culmann’s method, the friction circle method also assumes the failure surface as the arc of circle.

6. The forces acting on a sliding wedge are___________
a) Weight of the wedge
b) Total frictional force
c) Total cohesive resistance
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: d [Reason:] The forces acting on a sliding wedge are i) the weight of the wedge ii) the total frictional resistance or resultant, and iii) total cohesive resistance along the slip circle.

7. The factor of safety Fc with respect to cohesive strength is based on the assumption that___________
a) Frictional force is fully mobilized
b) Frictional force is zero
c) Total cohesive resistance is zero
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: a [Reason:] The factor of safety with respect to cohesive strength, based on the assumption that frictional force has been fully mobilized, and the equation is given by FC = C / Cm.

8. The factor K, in the radius of the friction circle(Kr sin φ) depends on____________
a) Radius of the frictional circle
b) Frictional resistances offered
c) Cohesive resistance
d) Central angle of the slip arc

Answer: d [Reason:] In the frictional circle radius of Kr sin φ, the factor K depends on the central angle δ of the slip arc.

## Set 3

1. Frost heave is defined as___________
a) Rise of ground water surface
b) Freezing of water in soil
c) Increase in volume due to freezing
d) None of the mentioned

Answer: a [Reason:] Rise of ground water surface in a soil mass due to frost action is termed as frost heave.

2. If the void ratio is 40% in saturated soil, then the expansion of the soil will be__________
a) 5 %
b) 2.3 %
c) 3.6 %
d) 4 %

Answer: c [Reason:] There is an increase of about 9% in the volume, when water is converted in to ice .therefore Expansion of the soil = 0.009×40 =3.6 %.

3. What are the types of soils, that are prone to frost action?
a) Sand and Silt
b) Clay
c) None of the mentioned
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: a [Reason:] Only silts and fine sands are prone to frost action because these soils have large capillary rise due to relatively fine particles.

4. What is the maximum capillary tension for a tube of 0.05 mm diameter at 4°c?
a) 6.05 KN/m3
b) 0.617 KN/m3
c) 5.45 KN/m3
d) 3.00 KN/m3

Answer: a [Reason:] Maximum capillary height at 4°c is (hC) max = 0.3084/d =0.617 m Capillary tension = (hc) max × γmax =6.05 KN/m3.

5. A well graded soil is said to be frost susceptible if more than_________
a) 10 % particle are smaller than 0.002 mm
b) 3 % particle are smaller than 0.002 mm
c) 3 % particle are smaller than 0.005 mm
d) 10 % particle are smaller than 0.005 mm

Answer: b [Reason:] A well graded soil is reckoned to be frost susceptible if 3 % particle are smaller than 0.002 mm and for poor graded soil 10 % particle are smaller than 0.002 mm.

6. The ground surface up to which water freeze is called___________
a) Frost heave
b) Frost boil
c) Frost line
d) Ice lenses

Answer: c [Reason:] Frost line is the depth or boundary below the ground surface up to which water may freeze.

7. The temperature at which the soil freezes in the pores of the soil depends on__________
a) Pore size
b) Frost action
c) Saturation
d) Capillary tension

Answer: a [Reason:] As the water freezes in larger pores, and remain unfrozen in the smaller pore the temperature falls downs.

8. Silt soils are more susceptible to frost action than__________
a) Sand soil and Clayey soil
b) Gravel soil
c) None of the mentioned
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: a [Reason:] Silt soils have more plasticity index than sand and clays and hence the softening effect due to excess water will be more severe in silts.

9. Soil should possess___________for the formation of ice lens.
a) Low moisture content
b) High porosity
c) High capillarity
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: c [Reason:] For the formation of ice lens and frost heave, soil should possess high capillarity so that the soil possesses high capacity to pull water.

10. Which of the following is an effect of frost boils?
a) Formation of pot holes
b) Increased frost depth
c) Formation of capillary saturation
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: a [Reason:] Due to frost boils, there is a formation of pot holes by extrusion of soft soil and water under the dynamic action of wheel loads.

11. Which of the following action can be used to prevent deep frost penetration in the ground surface in building?
a) Removing the frost susceptible soil
b) Placing insulating blankets of sand and gravel
c) Providing proper drainage
d) Interposing a pervious gravel blanket

Answer: b [Reason:] Placing insulating blankets of 15 to 30 cm thick layer of sand and gravel on the ground surface above the frost susceptible to prevent deep penetration method.

## Set 4

1. The efficiency of pile group depends upon__________
a) Characteristic of pile and Spacing of pile
b) Bearing capacity of soil
c) All of the mentioned
d) None of the mentioned

Answer: a [Reason:] The efficiency of pile group depends upon the following factors: Characteristics of pile (i.e. length, diameter, material etc.), spacing of pile, total number of piles in a row and number of rows etc.

2. Which of the following formulae can be used for determining the efficiency of pile group?
a) Dynamic formulae
b) Static formulae
c) Feld’s formulae
d) Hiley’s formulae

Answer: c [Reason:] Converse Labarre formulae, Seiler-kenney formulae, Feld’s rule are the some of the common formulae available for determining the efficiency of pile group.

3. In which of the following rule, the value of each pile is reduced by one-sixteenth?
a) Converse Labarre formulae
b) Feld’s formulae
c) Seiler-Keeney formulae
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: b [Reason:] According to Feld’s rule, the value of each pile is reduced by one-sixteenth on account of the effect of the nearest pile in each diagonal or straight row of which the pile in question is a member.

4. The bearing capacity of a single pile in clay is mainly due to_________
a) Friction
b) Shear strength of soil

Answer: a [Reason:] The bearing capacity of single pile in clay is mainly due to friction, and the friction and the point bearing resistance may be negligible.

5. The downward drag acting on a pile due to the movement of the surrounding is called________
a) Skin friction
b) Negative skin friction
c) Frictional force
d) None of the mentioned

Answer: b [Reason:] Negative skin friction is downward drag acting on a pile due to the downward movement of the surrounding compressible soil relative to the pile.

6. The area of the pile group along failure surface is equal to__________
a) Perimeter × Area of cross section
c) Perimeter × Length
d) Perimeter / area of cross section

Answer: c [Reason:] The area of the pile group, along failure surface is approximately equal to the perimeter P of the pile group multiplied by the length L of the pile.

7. The pile spacing of each pile is taken as__________ diameter of pile.
a) Four
b) Five
c) Three
d) Ten

Answer: c [Reason:] A spacing of three times the diameter of piles is commonly selected as trial spacing between the piles and checked against the criterion that the resistance Qs obtained.

8. The settlement of a group of friction piles can be computed on the assumption that________
a) Clay is incompressible
b) Pile below the lower level is ignored
c) Bearing resistance is zero
d) None of the mentioned

Answer: a [Reason:] As a rough approximation, the settlement of a group of friction piles can be computed on the assumptions that the clay contained between the top of piles is incompressible.

9. The equation used for determining the bearing capacity of a group of friction piles is__________
a) Qup = Rf + Rp
b) Qug = n Qup . ηg
c) Qug = n Qup / ηg
d) None of the mentioned

Answer: b [Reason:] A method of estimating the bearing capacity of a group of friction piles is to multiply the quantity nQup by a reduction factor called the efficiency of pile group. Qug = n Qup . ηg.

## Set 5

1. In hydrometer method, the sampling depth h is kept at a constant of__________
a) 14 cm
b) 9 cm
c) 8 cm
d) 10 cm

Answer: d [Reason:] The sampling depth (h) in hydrometer method is taken as 10 cm.

2. In calibration of hydrometer reading ,the reduced reading are designated as__________
a) RS
b) RH
c) RR
d) RL

Answer: b [Reason:] The reducing reading is designated as RH, which is used for calibration of hydrometer.

3. The dispersing agent correction in hydrometer reading is always__________
a) Positive
b) Both negative and positive
c) Negative
d) Equal

Answer: c [Reason:] The addition of dispersing agent in water increases its water level, therefore the dispersing correction is always negative.

4. The hydrometer method differs from pipette method on the basis of which of the following?
a) Principle of test
b) Taking the observation
c) Method of procedure
d) None of the mentioned

Answer: b [Reason:] In sedimentation analysis the hydrometer method differs from pipette method in the method of taking the observation.

5. The corrections which are applied to the hydrometer reading ,in hydrometer method is_______
a) Meniscus correctionc and Dispersing agent correction
b) Magnitude correction
c) All of the mentioned
d) None of the mentioned

Answer: a [Reason:] Both meniscus and dispersing agent correction are applied to a hydrometer reading.

6. The meniscus correction in hydrometer reading is___________
a) Always positive
b) Always negative
c) Negative sometime
d) Positive sometime

Answer: a [Reason:] The actual reading to be taken at water level will be more; hence the meniscus correction will be always positive.

7. Which of the following is correct hydrometer reading equation?
a) R=Rh’ +Cm ± CL -Cd
b) R=Rh’ +cm +CL -Cd
c) R=Cm ±Rm – Cd + CL
d) R =Rh +Cm ± Cd + CL

Answer: a [Reason:] According to the derived equation of hydrometer the equation is R=Rh’ +Cm ± CL –Cd.

8. The corrected hydrometer reading for meniscus is_________
a) R=Rh’ +Cm
b) R=Rh’ +C
c) R=Rh’+ Cm ± CL –Cd
d) None of the mentioned

Answer: b [Reason:] The three corrections Cm , CL ,Cd can be combined into one corrections Cm and the equation can be written as R=Rh’ + Cm.

9. The visibility of the soil suspension in hydrometer method is__________
a) Transparent
b) Translucent
c) Opaque
d) None of the mentioned

Answer: c [Reason:] Since the density of the soil suspension is high, the visibility will be opaque.

10. The volume of suspension taken in the hydrometer test is__________
a) 500
b) 120
c) 100
d) 1000

Answer: d [Reason:] The quantity of dry soil and dispersing agent is taken as double of pipette which is 500 ml.

11. Initially ,the volume of hydrometer is taken in terms of___________
a) Grams
b) Millimeters
c) Liters
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: a [Reason:] since the soil is weighed in terms of mass, the volume is taken in terms of grams.

12. The hydrometer are generally calibrated at____________
a) 35°c
b) 27°c
c) -35°c
d) -27°c