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Multiple choice question for engineering

Set 1

1. Quality Management in software engineering is also known as
a) SQA
b) SQM
c) SQI
d) SQA and SQM

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Quality Management is also called software quality assurance (SQA) which serves as an umbrella activity that is applied throughout the software process.

2. Quality also can be looked at in terms of user satisfaction which includes
a) A compliant product
b) Good quality output
c) Delivery within budget and schedule
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] This focuses on how well the implementation follows the design and how well the resulting system meets its requirements .

3. Inspections and testing are what kinds of Quality Costs?
a) Prevention
b) Internal Failure
c) External Failure
d) Appraisal

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Inspections, equipment calibration, maintenance and testing appraisal costs is quality management.

4. According to Pareto’s principle, x% of defects can be traced to y% of all causes. What are the values of x and y?
a) 60, 40
b) 70, 30
c) 80, 20
d) No such principle exists

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The Pareto principle (also known as the 80–20 rule) states that, for many events, roughly 80% of the effects come from 20% of the causes.

5. What is Six Sigma?
a) It is the most widely used strategy for statistical quality assurance
b) The “Six Sigma” refers to six standard deviations
c) It is the most widely used strategy for statistical quality assurance AND The “Six Sigma” refers to six standard deviations
d) A Formal Technical Review(FTR) guideline for quality walkthrough or inspection

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The Six Sigma uses data and statistical analysis to measure and improve a company’s operational performance .

6. Which of the following is not a core step of Six Sigma?
a) Define
b) Control
c) Measure
d) Analyse

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] It is an additional step added for existing processes and can be done in parallel.

7. Non-conformance to software requirements is known as
a) Software availability
b) Software reliability
c) Software failure
d) None of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Given a set of valid requirements, all software failures can be traced to design or implementation problems.

8. Software safety is equivalent to software reliability.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Software reliability uses statistical analysis to determine the likelihood that a software failure will occur; however, the failure may not necessarily result in a hazard or mishap.

9. Misinterpretation of customer communication is a sample of possible cause defects.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Translation gap between the client and the developer often leads to software defects.

10. What kind of quality cost is incurred when an error is detected in a product prior to shipment?
a) Prevention
b) Internal Failure
c) External Failure
d) Appraisal

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] This includes rework, repair, and failure mode analysis.

11. The degree to which the design specifications are followed during manufacturing is known as
a) Quality of design
b) Quality of conformance
c) Quality of testing
d) None of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] This focuses on how well the implementation follows the design and how well the resulting system meets its requirements.

12. Quality of design encompasses requirements and specifications of the system.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The characteristic that designers specify for an item are cover in quality of design.

13. According to ISO 9001, inspection and testing comes under which management responsibility?
a) Process control
b) Document control
c) Control of non-conforming products
d) Servicing

View Answer

Answer: a

Set 2

1. Which of the following is not a diagram studied in Requirement Analysis ?
a) Use Cases
b) Entity Relationship Diagram
c) State Transition Diagram
d) Activity Diagram

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Activity Diagram comes under the design phase of SDLC.

2. How many feasibility studies is conducted in Requirement Analysis ?
a) Two
b) Three
c) Four
d) None of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Economic feasibility (cost/benefit analysis), Technical feasibility (hardware/software/people, etc.) and Legal feasibility studies are done in Requirement Analysis.

3. How many phases are there in Requirement Analysis ?
a) Three
b) Four
c) Five
d) Six

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Problem Recognition, Evaluation and Synthesis (focus is on what not how), Modeling, Specification and Review are the five phases.

4. Traceability is not considered in Requirement Analysis.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Requirements traceability is concerned with documenting the life of a requirement and providing bi-directional traceability between various associated requirements, hence requirements must be traceable.

5. Requirements analysis is critical to the success of a development project.
a) True
b) False
c) Depends upon the size of project
d) None of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Requirements must be actionable, measurable, testable, related to identified business needs or opportunities, and defined to a level of detail sufficient for system design.

6. _________ and _________ are the two issues of Requirement Analysis.
a) Performance, Design
b) Stakeholder, Developer
c) Functional, Non-Functional
d) None of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Option a and c are the types of requirements and not the issues of requirement analysis..

7. The requirements that result from requirements analysis are typically expressed from one of three perspectives or views.WhaT is that perspective or view ?
a) Developer
b) User
c) Non-Functional
d) Physical

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] The perspectives or views have been described as the Operational, Functional, and Physical views.All three are necessary and must be coordinated to fully understand the customers’ needs and objectives.

8. Requirements Analysis is an Iterative Process.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Requirements analysis is conducted iteratively with functional analysis to optimize performance requirements for identified functions, and to verify that synthesized solutions can satisfy customer requirements.

9. Coad and Yourdon suggested _______ selection characteristics that should be used as an analyst considers each potential object for inclusion in the requirement analysis model.
a) Three
b) Four
c) Five
d) Six

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Retained information, Needed services, Multiple attributes, Common attributes, Common operations and Essential requirements are the six criterion mentioned by Coad and Yourdon.

10. Requirements should specify ‘what’ but not ‘how’.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] ‘What’ refers to a system’s purpose, while ‘How’ refers to a system’s structure and behavior.

Set 3

1. Which of the following property does not correspond to a good Software Requirements Specification (SRS) ?
a) Verifiable
b) Ambiguous
c) Complete
d) Traceable

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The SRS should be unambiguous in nature which means each sentence in SRS should have a unique interpretation.

2. Which of the following property of SRS is depicted by the statement : “Conformity to a standard is maintained” ?
a) Correct
b) Complete
c) Consistent
d) Modifiable

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] The SRS is complete full labeling and referencing of all figures, tables etc. and definition of all terms and units of measure is defined.

3. The SRS is said to be consistent if and only if
a) its structure and style are such that any changes to the requirements can be made easily while retaining the style and structure
b) every requirement stated therein is one that the software shall meet
c) every requirement stated therein is verifiable
d) no subset of individual requirements described in it conflict with each other

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Real world object may conflict with each other for example one requirement says that all lights should be red while the other states that all lights should green.

4. Which of the following statements about SRS is/are true ?
i. SRS is written by customer
ii. SRS is written by a developer
iii. SRS serves as a contract between customer and developer
a) Only i is true
b) Both ii and iii are true
c) All are true
d) None of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The SRS acts as a communication media between the Customer, Analyst, system developers, maintainers etc. Thus it is a contract between Purchaser and Supplier. It is essentially written by a developer on the basis of customer’ need but in some cases it may be written by a customer as well.

5. The SRS document is also known as _____________ specification.
a) black-box
b) white-box
c) grey-box
d) none of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The system is considered as a black box whose internal details are not known that is, only its visible external (input/output) behavior is documented.

6. Which of the following is included in SRS ?
a) Cost
b) Design Constraints
c) Staffing
d) Delivery Schedule

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Design constraints include standards to be incorporated in the software, implementation language, resource limits, operating environment etc.

7. Which of the following is not included in SRS ?
a) Performance
b) Functionality
c) Design solutions
d) External Interfaces

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The SRS document concentrates on:”what needs to be done” and carefully avoids the solution (“how to do”) aspects.

8. Arrange the given sequence to form a SRS Prototype outline as per IEEE SRS Standard.
i. General description
ii. Introduction
iii. Index
iv. Appendices
v. Specific Requirements
a) iii, i, ii,v, iv
b) iii, ii, i, v, iv
c) ii, i, v, iv, iii
d) iii, i, ii

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] The given sequence correctly resemble a standard SRS prototype as per IEEE.

9. Consider the following Statement: “The output of a program shall be given within 10secs of event X 10% of the time.”What characteristic of SRS is being depicted here ?
a) Consistent
b) Verifiable
c) Non-verifiable
d) Correct

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] An SRS is verifiable, if and only if, every requirement stated therein is verifiable.Here the given condition can be verified during testing phase.

10. Consider the following Statement: “The data set will contain an end of file character.”What characteristic of SRS is being depicted here ?
a) Consistent
b) Non-verifiable
c) Correct
d) Ambiguous

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] An SRS is unambiguous if and only if, every requirement stated therein has only one unique interpretation. The given statement does not answer the question: “which data set will have an end of file character ?”.

11. Consider the following Statement: “The product should have a good human interface.”What characteristic of SRS is being depicted here ?
a) Consistent
b) Non-Verifiable
c) Correct
d) Ambiguous

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] An SRS is verifiable, if and only if, every requirement stated therein is verifiable. The statement can only be answered on completion of the software and customer evaluation but still human interface will vary from person to person.

12. Narrative essay is one of the best types of specification document ?
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer:b [Reason:] Narrative essay is one of the worst types of specification document as it is difficult to change, difficult to be precise, has scope for contradictions, etc.

Set 4

1. What is the first step of requirement elicitation ?
a) Identifying Stakeholder
b) Listing out Requirements
c) Requirements Gathering
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Stakeholders are the one who will invest in and use the product, so its essential to chalk out stake holders first.

2. Starting from least to most important, choose the order of stakeholder.
i. Managers
ii. Entry level Personnel
iii. Users
iv. Middle level stakeholder
a) i, ii, iv, iii
b) i, ii, iii, iv
c) ii, iv, i, iii
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Users are your customers, they will be using your product, thus making them most important of all.

3. Arrange the tasks involved in requirements elicitation in an appropriate manner.
i. Consolidation
ii. Prioritization
iii. Requirements Gathering
iv. Evaluation
a) iii, i, ii, iv
b) iii, iv, ii, i
c) iii, ii, iv, i
d) ii, iii, iv, i

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Requirements gathering captures viewpoint from different users followed by evaluation of those view points.Now comes the task of checking the relative importance of the requirements and finally to consolidate or bind together the information collected.

4. What are the types of requirement in Quality Function Deployment(QFD) ?
a) Known, Unknown, Undreamed
b) User, Developer
c) Functional, Non-Functional
d) Normal, Expected, Exciting

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] According to QFD, Normal, Expected and Exciting requirements maximizes customer satisfaction from the Software Engineering Process.

5. What kind of approach was introduced for elicitation and modelling to give a functional view of the system ?
a) Object Oriented Design (by Booch)
b) Use Cases (by Jacobson)
c) Fusion (by Coleman)
d) Object Modeling Technique (by Rambaugh)

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Use Case captures who does what with the system, for what purpose, without dealing with system internals.

6. What are the kinds of actors used in OOSE ?
a) Primary
b) Secondary
c) Ternary
d) Both Primary and Secondary

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] A primary actor is one having a goal requiring the assistance of the system whereas, a secondary actor is one from which system needs assistance.There is no such thing as ternary actor in Software Engineering.

7. Why is Requirements Elicitation a difficult task ?
a) Problem of scope
b) Problem of understanding
c) Problem of volatility
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Users specify unnecessary technical detail that may confuse, rather than clarify overall system objectives.Also, the customers/users are not completely sure of what is needed, have a poor understanding of the capabilities and limitations of their computing environment and they do not understand that the requirements change over time.

8. What requirement gathering method developed at IBM in 1970s is used for managing requirement elicitation ?
a) JAD
b) Traceablity
c) FAST
d) Both JAD and Traceablity

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Joint application design (JAD) is a process used to collect business requirements while developing new information systems for a company.Requirements traceability is concerned with documenting the life of a requirement and providing bi-directional traceability between various associated requirements.

9. Requirements elicitation is a cyclic process
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Requirements traceability provides bi-directional traceability between various associated requirements.

10. How many Scenarios are there in elicitation activities ?
a) One
b) Two
c) Three
d) Four

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] As-is Scenario, Visionary Scenario, Evaluation Scenario and Training Scenario are the four scenarios in requirement elicitation activities.

Set 5

1. Which of the following elicitation techniques is a view-point based method ?
a) FODA
b) QFD
c) CORE
d) IBIS

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] Controlled Requirements Expression(CORE) says that any system can be viewed from a number of view points and that a complete picture of system requirements can only emerge by putting together the various viewpoints.

2. ___________ and ____________ are the two view points discussed in Controlled Requirements Expression (CORE).
a) Functional, Non-Functional
b) User, Developer
c) Known, Unknown
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] The CORE sessions includes the discussion of functional and non-functional requirements.

3. What is the major drawback of CORE ?
a) Requirements are comprehensive
b) NFRs are not given enough importance
c) Role of analyst is passive
d) All of the mentioned

View Answer

Answer: c [Reason:] In CORE the requirement specification are put together by all users, customers and analysts, so a passive analyst will not get the requirements properly.

4. Choose a framework that corresponds to Issue Based Information System (IBIS).
a) Idea -> Question -> Argument
b) Question -> Idea -> Argument
c) Issue -> Position -> Justification
d) Both Question -> Idea -> Argument and Issue -> Position -> Justification

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] IBIS is a simple and non-intrusive method that provides a framework for resolving issues and gathering requirements.

5. How is CORE different from IBIS ?
a) Iterative in nature
b) Redundancies are removed
c) It is simple and an easier method to use
d) Consistency problems are addressed in CORE

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Preliminary data collection is done in CORE to get some broad level data on each view point to structure the view point and to check consistency from within and outside the viewpoints.

6. Which of the following Requirement Elicitation Techniques removes the poor understanding of application domain and lack of common terminology between the users and the analysts ?
a) FODA
b) CORE
c) IBIS
d) Prototyping

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] Feature Oriented Domain Analysis (FODA) is defined as the process of identifying, collecting, organizing and representing relevant information in a domain .

7. How many steps are involved in Feature Oriented Domain Analysis (FODA) ?
a) Two
b) Three
c) Four
d) Five

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] Context Analysis, Domain Modeling and Architecture Modeling are the three steps involved in Feature Oriented Domain Analysis (FODA).

8. IBIS is a more structured approach than CORE.
a) True
b) False

View Answer

Answer: a [Reason:] IBIS is a more structured approach as it captures information which is consistent and important.On the other hand CORE gives importance to every view point even if it is obsolete.

9. Which one of the following is not an actor in JAD sessions ?
a) User
b) Tester
c) Scribe
d) Sponsor

View Answer

Answer: b [Reason:] A Tester’s role is seen in after coding phase rather than in elicitation phase.

10. What of the following is not an output of a JAD session ?
a) Context Diagrams
b) DFDs
c) ER model
d) UML diagrams

View Answer

Answer: d [Reason:] Unified Modeling Language (UML) diagrams are constructed during the design phase of the SDLC.

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