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# Multiple choice question for engineering

## Set 1

1. There are ________ tuples in finite state machine.
a) 4
b) 5
c) 6
d) unlimited

Answer:b Reason: States, input symbols,initial state,accepting state and transition function.

2. Transition function maps.
a) Σ * Q -> Σ
b) Q * Q -> Σ
c) Σ * Σ -> Q
d) Q * Σ -> Q

Answer:d Reason: Inputs are state and input string output is states.

3. Number of states require to accept string ends with 10.
a) 3
b) 2
c) 1
d) can’t be represented.

Answer:a Reason: This is minimal finite automata.

4. Extended transition function is .
a) Q * Σ* -> Q
b) Q * Σ -> Q
c) Q* * Σ* -> Σ
d) Q * Σ -> Σ

Answer:a Reason: This takes single state and string of input to produce a state.

5. δ*(q,ya) is equivalent to .
a) δ((q,y),a)
b) δ(δ*(q,y),a)
c) δ(q,ya)
d) independent from δ notation

Answer:b Reason: First it parse y string after that it parse a.

6. String X is accepted by finite automata if .
a) δ*(q,x) E A
b) δ(q,x) E A
c) δ*(Q0,x) E A
d) δ(Q0,x) E A

Answer:c Reason: If automata starts with starting state and after finite moves if reaches to final step then it called accepted.

7. Languages of a automata is
a) If it is accepted by automata
b) If it halts
c) If automata touch final state in its life time
d) All language are language of automata

Answer:a Reason: If a string accepted by automata it is called language of automata.

8. Language of finite automata is.
a) Type 0
b) Type 1
c) Type 2
d) Type 3

Answer:d Reason: According to Chomsky classification.

9. Finite automata requires minimum _______ number of stacks.
a) 1
b) 0
c) 2
d) None of the mentioned

Answer:b Reason: Finite automata doesn’t require any stack operation .

10. Number of final state require to accept Φ in minimal finite automata.
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) None of the mentioned

Answer:d Reason: No final state requires.

11. Regular expression for all strings starts with ab and ends with bba is.
a) aba*b*bba
b) ab(ab)*bba
c) ab(a+b)*bba
d) All of the mentioned

Answer:c Reason: Starts with ab then any number of a or b and ends with bba.

12. How many DFA’s exits with two states over input alphabet {0,1} ?
a) 16
b) 26
c) 32
d) 64

Answer:d Reason: Number of DFA’s = 2n * n(2*n).

13. The basic limitation of finite automata is that
a) It can’t remember arbitrary large amount of information.
b) It sometimes recognize grammar that are not regular.
c) It sometimes fails to recognize regular grammar.
d) All of the mentioned

Answer:a Explanation:Because there is no memory associated with automata.

14. Number of states require to simulate a computer with memory capable of storing ‘3’ words each of length ‘8’.
a) 3 * 28
b) 2(3*8)
c) 2(3+8)
d) None of the mentioned

Answer:b Reason: 2(m*n) states requires .

15. FSM with output capability can be used to add two given integer in binary representation. This is
a) True
b) False
c) May be true
d) None of the mentioned

Answer:a Reason: Use them as a flip flop output .

## Set 2

1. How many strings of length less than 4 contains the language described by the regular expression (x+y)*y(a+ab)*?
a) 7
b) 10
c) 12
d) 11

Answer : d Explanation : string of length 0 = 1 string of length 1 = 4 string of length 2 = 3 string of length 3 = 3

2. Which of the following is true?
a) (01)*0 = 0(10)*
b) (0+1)*0(0+1)*1(0+1) = (0+1)*01(0+1)*
c) (0+1)*01(0+1)*+1*0* = (0+1)*
d) All of the mentioned

Answer : d Explaination : None.

3. A language is regular if and only if
a) accepted by DFA
b) accepted by PDA
c) accepted by LBA
d) accepted by Turing machine

Answer : a Explanation : All of above machine can accept regular language but all string accepted by machine is regular only for DFA.

4. Regular grammar is
a) context free grammar
b) non context free grammar
c) english grammar
d) none of the mentioned

Answer : a Explanation : Regular grammar is subset of context free grammar.

5. Let the class of language accepted by finite state machine be L1 and the class of languages represented by regular expressions be L2 then
a) L1<L2
b) L1>=L2
c) L1 U L2 = .*
d) L1=L2

Answer : d Explanation : Finite state machine and regular expression have same power to express a language.

6. Which of the following is not a regular expression?
a) [(a+b)*-(aa+bb)]*
b) [(0+1)-(0b+a1)*(a+b)]*
c) (01+11+10)*
d) (1+2+0)*(1+2)*

Answer : b Explanation : Except b all are regular expression*.

7. Regular expression are
a) Type 0 language
b) Type 1 language
c) Type 2 language
d) Type 3 language

Answer : a Explanation : According to Chomsky hierarchy .

8. Which of the following is true?
a) Every subset of a regular set is regular
b) Every finite subset of non-regular set is regular
c) The union of two non regular set is not regular
d) Infinite union of finite set is regular

Answer : b Explanation : None.

9. L and ~L are recursive enumerable then L is
a) Regular
b) Context free
c) Context sensitive
d) Recursive

Answer : d Explanation :If L is recursive enumerable and its complement too if and only if L is recursive.

10. Regular expressions are closed under
a) Union
b) Intersection
c) Kleen star
d) All of the mentioned

Answer : d Explanation : According to definition of regular expression.

## Set 3

1. Regular sets are closed under union,concatenation and kleene closure.
a) True
b) False
c) Depends on regular set
d) Can’t say

Answer:a Reason: Regular sets are closed under these three operation.

2. Complement of a DFA can be obtained by
a) making starting state as final state.
b) no trival method.
c) making final states non-final and non-final to final.
d) make final as a starting state.

Answer:c Reason: String accepted in previous DFA will not be accepted and non accepting string will be accepted .

3. Complement of regular sets are _________
a) Regular
b) CFG
c) CSG
d) RE

Answer:a Reason: Regular sets are closed under complement operation.

4. If L1 and L2 are regular sets then intersection of these two will be
a) Regular
b) Non Regular
c) Recursive
d) Non Recursive

Answer:a Reason: Regular expression are also colsed under intersection.

5. If L1 is regular L2 is unknown but L1-L2 is regular ,then L2 must be
a) Empty set
b) CFG
c) Decidable
d) Regular

Answer:d Reason: Regular is closed under difference.

6. Reverse of a DFA can be formed by
a) using PDA
b) making final state as non-final
c) making final as starting state and starting state as final state
d) None of the mentioned

Answer:c Reason: By making final state as starting state string starting from end will be accepted.

7. Reverse of (0+1)* will be
a) Phi
b) Null
c) (0+1)*
d) (0+1)

Answer:c Reason: There is only one state which is start and final state of DFA so interchanging starting start and final state doesn’t change DFA.

8. A ___________ is a substitution such that h(a) contains a string for each a.
a) Closure
b) Interchange
c) Homomorphism
d) Inverse Homomorphism

Answer:c Reason: This operation replace using a function .

9. Homomorphism of a regular set is _______
a) Universal set
b) Null set
c) Regular set
d) Non regular set

Answer:c Reason: Regular set are closed under homomorphism.

10. (a ^ 5b ^ 5)* is example of ________
a) Type 0 language
b) Type 1 language
c) Type 2 language
d) Type 3 language

Answer:d Reason: It is a regular expression.

11. Which of the following is type 3 language ?
a) Strings of 0’s whose length is perfect square
b) Palindromes string
c) Strings of 0’s having length prime number
d) String of odd number of 0’s

Answer:d Reason: Only d is regular language.

12. a ^ nb ^ n where (n+m) is even .
a) Type 0
b) Type 1
c) Type 2
d) Type 3

Answer:d Reason: It is a regular expression.

13. Complement of a ^ nb ^ m where n >= 4 and m <= 3 is example of
a) Type 0
b) Type 1
c) Type 2
d) Type 3

Answer:d Reason: It is a regular expression.

14. a ^ nb ^ m where n >= 1, m >= 1, nm >= 3 is example of
a) Type 0
b) Type 1
c) Type 2
d) Type 3

Answer:d Reason: It is a regular expression.

15. Complement of (a + b)* will be
a) phi
b) null
c) a
d) b

Answer:a Reason: Given expression accept all string so complement will accept nothing.

## Set 4

1. A reaction has reactants 1 moles of H2O and 1 mole of NaCl, and products NaOH and HCl, what are the total moles of products?
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4

Answer: b Reason: In the product there is one mole of NaOH and one mole of HCl is produced.

2. 5 moles of O2 is added to 5 moles of H2, how many moles of H2O will it produce?
a) 5
b) 10
c) 15
d) 20

Answer: b Reason: Per mole of Oxygen & Hydrogen there is two moles of water.

3. In a process, 5 Kgs of water is added to a container and after some interval 3 Kgs of water is taken out. If finally there is 7 Kgs of water then how much water was there in the very beginning?
a) 5 Kg
b) 10 Kg
c) 15 Kg
d) 20 Kg

Answer: a Reason: Final condition = Initial condition + sum of inputs – sum of outputs.

4. A bucket of water is filled with oil. What kind of system is this?
a) Open
b) Closed
c) Transient
d) None of the mentioned

Answer: b Reason: Oil is neither entering nor leaving.

5. The human body is _________
a) Closed System
b) Open System
c) Isolated System
d) None of the mentioned

Answer: b Reason: Since air, water and food is going in and out of a human body, it’s an open system.

6. A fluid enters system at the rate of 10 liters/s and leaves in two pathways one with 7 liters/s and other with 3 liters/s, then what type of flow it is?
c) Cannot say
d) None of the mentioned

Answer: a Reason: Since the flow in rate and flow out rate of the fluid are equal, the system is in steady-state.

7. A fluid enters system at the rate of 10 liters/s and leaves in two pathways one with 7 liters/s, then what type of flow it is?
c) Cannot say
d) None of the mentioned

Answer: b Reason: Since the flow in rate and flow out rate of the fluid are not equal, the system is in Unsteady-state.

8. A semi-batch process differ from an open process in ________
a) Input
b) Output
c) Generation
d) Consumption

Answer: b Reason: A semi-batch process does not have output, while an open system has output.

9. Wine pouring in a glass is an example of
a) Batch
b) Semi-batch
c) Neither of them
d) Both of them

Answer: b Reason: Wine enters but doesn`t leave, it`s a semi-batch.

10. Water boiling in a container is an example of Batch process.
The above given statement is
a) True
b) False
c) Neither true nor false
d) None of the mentioned

Answer: b Reason: Steam is leaving the container, it is neither a batch process nor a semi-batch process.

## Set 5

1. Of the following, _________ has the maximum frequency.
a) UV Rays
b) Gamma Rays
c) Microwaves

Answer: b Reason: Gamma Rays come first in the electromagnetic spectrum sorted in the decreasing order of frequency.

2. In the Visible spectrum the ______ colour has the maximum wavelength.
a) Violet
b) Blue
c) Red
d) Yellow

Answer: c Reason: Red is towards the right in the electromagnetic spectrum sorted in the increasing order of wavelength.

3. Wavelength and frequency are related as : (c = speed of light)
a) c = wavelength / frequency
b) frequency = wavelength / c
c) wavelength = c * frequency
d) c = wavelength * frequency

Answer: d Reason: It is usually written as wavelength = c / frequency.

4. Electromagnetic waves can be visualised as a
a) sine wave
b) cosine wave
c) tangential wave
d) None of the mentioned

Answer: a Reason: Electromagnetic waves are visualised as sinusoidal wave.

a) lumens
b) watts
c) armstrong
d) hertz

Answer: b Reason: Radiance is the total amount of energy that flows from the light source and is measured in Watts.

6. Which of the following is used for chest and dental scans?
a) Hard X-Rays
b) Soft X-Rays
d) Infrared Rays

Answer: b Reason: Soft X-Rays (low energy) are used for dental and chest scans.

7. Which of the following is impractical to measure?
a) Frequency
c) Luminance
d) Brightness

Answer: d Reason: Brightness is subjective descriptor of light perception that is impossible to measure.

8. Massless particle containing a certain amount of energy is called
a) Photon
b) Shell
c) Electron
d) None of the mentioned

Answer: a Reason: Each bundle of massless energy is called a Photon.

9. What do you mean by achromatic light?
a) Chromatic light
b) Monochromatic light
c) Infrared light
d) Invisible light