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## Artificial Intelligence MCQ Set 1

1. Fuzzy logic is a form of
a) Two-valued logic
b) Crisp set logic
c) Many-valued logic
d) Binary set logic

Answer: c [Reason:] With fuzzy logic set membership is defined by certain value. Hence it could have many values to be in the set.

2. Traditional set theory is also known as Crisp Set theory.
a) True
b) False

Answer: a [Reason:] Traditional set theory set membership is fixed or exact either the member is in the set or not. There is only two crisp values true or false. In case of fuzzy logic there are many values. With weight say x the member is in the set.

3. The truth values of traditional set theory is ____________ and that of fuzzy set is __________
a) Either 0 or 1, between 0 & 1
b) Between 0 & 1, either 0 or 1
c) Between 0 & 1, between 0 & 1
d) Either 0 or 1, either 0 or 1

Answer: a [Reason:] Refer the definition of Fuzzy set and Crisp set.

4. Fuzzy logic is extension of Crisp set with an extension of handling the concept of Partial Truth.
a) True
b) False

Answer: a [Reason:] None.

5. The room temperature is hot. Here the hot (use of linguistic variable is used) can be represented by _______
a) Fuzzy Set
b) Crisp Set
c) Fuzzy & Crisp Set
d) None of the mentioned

Answer: a [Reason:] Fuzzy logic deals with linguistic variables.

6. The values of the set membership is represented by
a) Discrete Set
b) Degree of truth
c) Probabilities
d) Both Degree of truth & Probabilities

Answer: b [Reason:] Both Probabilities and degree of truth ranges between 0 – 1.

7. Japanese were the first to utilize fuzzy logic practically on high-speed trains in Sendai.
a) True
b) False

Answer: a [Reason:] None.

8. Fuzzy Set theory defines fuzzy operators. Choose the fuzzy operators from the following.
a) AND
b) OR
c) NOT
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: d [Reason:] The AND, OR, and NOT operators of Boolean logic exist in fuzzy logic, usually defined as the minimum, maximum, and complement;

9. There are also other operators, more linguistic in nature, called __________ that can be applied to fuzzy set theory.
a) Hedges
b) Lingual Variable
c) Fuzz Variable
d) None of the mentioned

Answer: a [Reason:] None.

10. Fuzzy logic is usually represented as
a) IF-THEN-ELSE rules
b) IF-THEN rules
c) Both IF-THEN-ELSE rules & IF-THEN rules
d) None of the mentioned

Answer: b [Reason:] Fuzzy set theory defines fuzzy operators on fuzzy sets. The problem in applying this is that the appropriate fuzzy operator may not be known. For this reason, fuzzy logic usually uses IF-THEN rules, or constructs that are equivalent, such as fuzzy associative matrices. Rules are usually expressed in the form: IF variable IS property THEN action

11. Like relational databases there does exists fuzzy relational databases.
a) True
b) False

Answer: a [Reason:] Once fuzzy relations are defined, it is possible to develop fuzzy relational databases. The first fuzzy relational database, FRDB, appeared in Maria Zemankova’s dissertation.

12. ______________ is/are the way/s to represent uncertainty.
a) Fuzzy Logic
b) Probability
c) Entropy
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: d [Reason:] Entropy is amount of uncertainty involved in data. Represented by H(data).

13. ____________ are algorithms that learn from their more complex environments (hence eco) to generalize, approximate and simplify solution logic.
a) Fuzzy Relational DB
b) Ecorithms
c) Fuzzy Set
d) None of the mentioned

Answer: c [Reason:] Local structure is usually associated with linear rather than exponential growth in complexity.

## Artificial Intelligence MCQ Set 2

1. General games involves
a) Single-agent
b) Multi-agent
c) Neither Single-agent nor Multi-agent
d) Only Single-agent and Multi-agent

Answer: d [Reason:] Depending upon games it could be single agent (Sudoku) or multi-agent (Chess)

2. Adversarial search problems uses
a) Competitive Environment
b) Cooperative Environment
c) Neither Competitive nor Cooperative Environment
d) Only Competitive and Cooperative Environment

Answer: a [Reason:] Since in cooperative environment agents’ goals are I conflicts. They compete for goal.

3. Mathematical game theory, a branch of economics, views any multi-agent environment as a game provided that the impact of each agent on the others is “significant,” regardless of whether the agents are cooperative or competitive.
a) True
b) False

Answer: a [Reason:] None.

4. Zero sum games are the one in which there are two agents whose actions must alternate and in which the utility values at the end of the game are always the same.
a) True
b) False

Answer: b [Reason:] Utility values are always same and opposite.

5. Zero sum game has to be a ______ game.
a) Single player
b) Two player
c) Multiplayer
d) Three player

Answer: c [Reason:] Zero sum games could be multiplayer games as long as the condition for zero sum game is satisfied.

6. A game can be formally defined as a kind of search problem with the following components:
a) Initial State
b) Successor Function
c) Terminal Test
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: d [Reason:] The initial state includes the board position and identifies the player to move. A successor function returns a list of (move, state) pairs, each indicating a legal move and the resulting state. A terminal test determines when the game is over. States where the game has ended are called terminal states. A utility function (also called an objective function or payoff function), which gives a numeric value for the terminal states. In chess, the outcome is a win, loss, or draw, with values +1, -1, or 0.

7. The initial state and the legal moves for each side define the __________ for the game.
a) Search Tree
b) Game Tree
c) State Space Search
d) Forest

Answer: b [Reason:] An example of game tree for Tic-Tac-Toe game.

8. General algorithm applied on game tree for making decision of win/lose is ____________
a) DFS/BFS Search Algorithms
b) Heuristic Search Algorithms
c) Greedy Search Algorithms
d) MIN/MAX Algorithms

Answer: d [Reason:] Given a game tree, the optimal strategy can be determined by examining the min/max value of each node, which we write as MINIMAX- VALUE(n). The min/max value of a node is the utility (for MAX) of being in the corresponding state, assuming that both players play optimally from there to the end of the game. Obviously, the min/max value of a terminal state is just its utility. Furthermore, given a choice, MAX will prefer to move to a state of maximum value, whereas MIN prefers a state of minimum value.

9. The minimax algorithm (Figure 6.3) computes the minimax decision from the current state. It uses a simple recursive computation of the minimax values of each successor state, directly implementing the defining equations. The recursion proceeds all the way down to the leaves of the tree, and then the minimax values are backed up through the tree as the recursion unwinds.
a) True
b) False

Answer: a [Reason:] Refer definition of minimax algorithm.

10. The complexity of minimax algorithm is
a) Same as of DFS
b) Space – bm and time – bm
c) Time – bm and space – bm
d) Same as BFS

Answer: a [Reason:] Same as DFS.

## Artificial Intelligence MCQ Set 3

1. Which data structure is used to give better heuristic estimates?
a) Forwards state-space
b) Backward state-space
c) Planning graph algorithm
d) None of the mentioned

Answer: c [Reason:] A special data structure called planning graph is used to give better heuristic estimates.

2. Which is used to extract solution directly from the planning graph?
a) Planning algorithm
b) Graphplan
c) Hill-climbing search
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: b [Reason:] We can extract the solution directly from the planning graph, using a specialized algorithm called Graphplan.

3. What are present in the planning graph?
a) Sequence of levels
b) Literals
c) Variables
d) Heuristic estimates

Answer: a [Reason:] A planning graph consists of sequence of levels correspond to time steps.

4. What is the starting level of planning graph?
a) Level 3
b) Level 2
c) Level 1
d) Level 0

Answer: d [Reason:] None.

5. What are present in each level of planning graph?
a) Literals
b) Actions
c) Variables
d) Both Literals & Actions

Answer: d [Reason:] Each and every level in the planning graph contains a set of literals and a set of actions.

6. Which kind of problem are suitable for planning graph?
a) Propositional planning problem
b) Planning problem
c) Action problem
d) None of the mentioned

Answer: a [Reason:] Planning graph work only for propositional planning problem with no variables.

7. What is meant by persistence actions?
a) Allow a literal to remain false
b) Allow a literal to remain true
c) Allow a literal to remain false & true
d) None of the mentioned

Answer: b [Reason:] Calculus allow a literal to remain true from one situation to the next if no action alters it. It is called as persistence action.

8. When will further expansion is unnecessary for planning graph?
a) Identical
b) Replicate
c) Not identical
d) None of the mentioned

Answer: a [Reason:] Every subsequent levels will be identical, So further expansion is unnecessary.

9. How many conditions are available between two actions in mutex relation?
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4

Answer: c [Reason:] The three conditions available on mute relationship are inconsistent effects, interference and competing needs.

10. What is called inconsistent support?
a) If two literals are not negation of other
b) If two literals are negation of other
c) Mutually exclusive
d) None of the mentioned

Answer: b [Reason:] If two literals are at the same level if one is the negation of another is called inconsistent support.

## Artificial Intelligence MCQ Set 4

1. Which algorithm is used for solving temporal probabilistic reasoning?
a) Hill-climbing search
b) Hidden markov model
c) Depth-first search

Answer: b [Reason:] Hidden Markov model is used for solving temporal probabilistic reasoning that was independant of transition and sensor model.

2. How does the state of the process is described in HMM?
a) Literal
b) Single random variable
c) Single discrete random variable
d) None of the mentioned

Answer: c [Reason:] An HMM is a temporal probabilistic model in which the state of the process is described by a single discrete random variable.

3. What are the possible values of the variable?
a) Variables
b) Literals
c) Discrete variable
d) Possible states of the world

Answer: d [Reason:] The possible values of the variables are the possible states of the world.

4. Where does the additional variables are added in HMM?
a) Temporal model
b) Reality moddel
c) Probability model
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: a [Reason:] Additional state variables can be added to a temporal model while staying within the HMM framework.

5. Which allows for a simple and matrix implementation of all the basic algorithm?
a) HMM
b) Restricted structure of HMM
c) Temporary model
d) Reality model

Answer: b [Reason:] Restricted structure of HMM allows for a very simple and elegant matrix implementation of all the basic algorithm.

6. Where does the Hidden Markov Model is used?
a) Speech recognition
b) Understanding of real world
c) Both Speech recognition & Understanding of real world
d) None of the mentioned

Answer: a [Reason:] None.

7. Which variable can give the concrete form to the representation of the
transition model?
a) Single variable
b) Discrete state variable
c) Random variable
d) Both Single & Discrete state variable

Answer: d [Reason:] With a single, discrete state variable, we can give concrete form to the representation of the transition model.

8. Which algorithm works by first running the standard forward pass to compute?
a) Smoothing
b) Modified smoothing
c) HMM
d) Depth-first search algorithm

Answer: b [Reason:] The modified smoothing algorithm works by first running the standard forward pass to compute and then running the backward pass.

9. Which reveals an improvement in online smoothing?
a) Matrix formulation
b) Revelation
c) HMM
d) None of the mentioned

Answer: a [Reason:] Matirx formulation reveals an improvement in online smoothing with a fixed lag.

10. Which suggests the existence of efficient recursive algorithm for online smoothing?
a) Matrix
b) Constant space
c) Constant time
d) None of the mentioned

Answer: b [Reason:] None.

## Artificial Intelligence MCQ Set 5

1. In LISP, the function returns the list that results after the first element is removed (the rest f the list), is
a) car
b) last
c) cons
d) cdr

Answer: d [Reason:] None.

2. Output segments of Artificial Intelligence programming contain(s)
a) Printed language and synthesized speech
b) Manipulation of physical object
c) Locomotion
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: d [Reason:] None.

3. LISP was created by:
a) John McCarthy
b) Marvin Minsky
c) Alan Turing
d) Allen Newell and Herbert Simon

Answer: a [Reason:] None.

4. Expert Ease was developed under the direction of:
a) John McCarthy
b) Donald Michie
d) Alan Turing

Answer: b [Reason:] None.

5. An Artificial Intelligence system developed by Terry A. Winograd to permit an interactive dialogue about a domain he called blocks-world.
a) SHRDLU
b) SIMD
c) BACON
d) STUDENT

Answer: a [Reason:] None.

6. MLMenu, a natural language interface for the TI Explorer, is similar to:
a) Ethernet
c) PROLOG
d) The Personal Consultant

Answer: b [Reason:] None.

7. Strong Artificial Intelligence is
a) the embodiment of human intellectual capabilities within a computer
b) a set of computer programs that produce output that would be considered to reflect intelligence if it were generated by humans
c) the study of mental faculties through the use of mental models implemented on a computer
d) all of the mentioned

Answer: a [Reason:] None.

8. The traditional way to exit and LISP system is to enter
a) quit
b) exit
c) bye
d) ok

Answer: b [Reason:] None.

9. In which of the following situations might a blind search be acceptable?
a) real-life situation
b) complex game
c) small search space
d) all of the mentioned

Answer: c [Reason:] None.

10. What is Artificial intelligence?
a) Putting your intelligence into Computer
b) Programming with your own intelligence
c) Making a Machine intelligent
d) Playing a Game

Answer: c [Reason:] Because AI is to make things work automatically through machine without using human effort. Machine will give the result with just giving input from human. That means the system or machine will act as per the requirement.

11. Which search method takes less memory?
a) Depth-First Search
c) Optimal search
d) Linear Search

Answer: a [Reason:] Depth-First Search takes less memory since only the nodes on the current path are stored, but in Breadth First Search, all of the tree that has generated must be stored.

12. A heuristic is a way of trying
a) To discover something or an idea embedded in a program
b) To search and measure how far a node in a search tree seems to be from a goal
c) To compare two nodes in a search tree to see if one is better than the other is
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: d [Reason:] In a heuristic approach, we discover certain idea and use heuristic functions to search for a goal and predicates to compare nodes.

13. How do you represent “All dogs have tails”?
a) ۷x: dog(x) àhastail(x)
b) ۷x: dog(x) àhastail(y)
c) ۷x: dog(y) àhastail(x)
d) ۷x: dog(x) àhasàtail(x)